The effect of wages and work experiences on the commitment of Hungarian employees

    Anita Kozák Affiliation
    ; Zoltán Krajcsák Affiliation


The purpose of this study is to find out whether there is a verifiable correlation between the individuals’ employee commitment dimensions (affective, continuance, normative, professional and deliberate) and the personal characteristics of these employees. Our research was carried out among the employees of 56 organizations based in Hungary. Organizations were selected by snowball method. A total of 1731 questionnaires were processed, besides descriptive statistical methods we have used variance analysis. We have found significant correlations between the ages of employees and the level of affective, continuance, normative and professional commitment as well, by age-grouping and wage-grouping too. The results show that the first communication mode also has a significant impact on these four commitment dimensions, and all of the commitment dimensions had a higher level among employees who was enquired by the organization (the direction of the first communication is from the organization to the employee).

Keyword : human management, employee commitment, professional commitment, organizational commitment, deliberate commitment, wages, labor market

How to Cite
Kozák, A., & Krajcsák, Z. (2018). The effect of wages and work experiences on the commitment of Hungarian employees. Business: Theory and Practice, 19, 123-134.
Published in Issue
Jun 22, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Ali I, Rehman KU, Ali SI, Yousaf J, Zia M (2010) Corporate social responsibility influences, employee commitment and organizational performance. African Journal of Business Management 4 (12): 2796-2801.

Alfes K, Shantz A, Truss C, Soane E (2013) The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 24 (2): 330-351.

Allen NJ, Meyer JP (1990) The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (1): 1-18.

Alvesson M (2004) Knowledge work and knowledge-intensive firms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Aranya N, Pollock J, Amernic J (1981) An examination of professional commitment in public accounting. Accounting, Organizations and Society 6 (4): 271-280.

Argyris C (1964) Integrating the individual and the organization. New York: John Wiley.

Ashikali G, Groeneveld S (2015) Diversity management in public organizations and its effect on employees’ affective commitment: the role of transformational leadership and the inclusiveness of the organizational culture. Review of Public Personnel Administration 35 (2): 146-168.

Becker HS (1960) Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology 66 (1): 40-53.

Buchanan B (1974) Building organizational commitment: the socialization of managers in work organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 19 (4): 533-546.

Caldwell DF, Chatman JA, O’Reilly CA (1990) Building organizational commitment: a multi-firm study. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63 (3): 245-261.

Chang E (1999) Career commitment as a complex moderator of organizational commitment and turnover intention. Human Relations 52 (10): 1257-1278.

Chesnut SR, Burley H (2015) Self-efficacy as a predictor of commitment to the teaching profession: a meta-analysis. Educational Research Review 15: 1-16.

Colarelli SM, Bishop RC (1990) Career commitment: functions, correlates and management. Group and Organization Studies 15 (2): 1580-178.

Darvas Zs, Raposo I (2018): People on the move: migration and mobility on the European Union. Bruegel Blueprint Series, Volume XXVIII, Bruegel.

Demirtas O, Akdogan A (2015) The effect of ethical leadership behavior on ethical climate, turnover intention, and affective commitment. Journal of Business Ethics 130 (1): 59-67.

Dubin R, Hedley R, Taveggia T (1976) Attachment to work. In: Dubin R (Eds) Handbook of work, organization, and sociology. Skokie: Rand McNally, 281-341.

Erdogan B, Bauer T, Taylor S (2015) Management commitment to the ecological environment and employees: Implications for employee attitudes and citizenship behaviors. Human Relations 68 (11): 1669-1691.

Gerhart BA, Judge TA (1991) Measures of new constructs or old ones? The case of organizational commitment and job satisfaction – CAHRS Working Paper. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies.

Eurostat (2018) European Comisson: Commission report: Employment and social situation in the EU continues to improve (Brussels, 12 February 2018)

Eurostat (2017) Migration and migrant population statistics

Fu W, Deshpande SP (2014) The impact of caring climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on job performance of employees in a China’s insurance company. Journal of Business Ethics 124 (2): 339-349.

Gilbert C, Winne S, Sels L (2011) The influence of line managers and HR department on employees’ affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 22 (8): 1618-1631.

Grusky O (1966) Career mobility and organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly 10 (4): 488-503.

Hall DT, Schneider B (1972) Correlates of organizational identification as a function of career pattern and organizational type. Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (3): 340-350.

Hall M, Smith D, Langfield‐Smith K (2005) Accountants’ commitment to their profession: multiple dimensions of professional commitment and opportunities for future research. Behavioral Research in Accounting 17 (1): 89-109.

Hárs Á, Simon D (2016) A külföldi munkavállalás és a mun-kaerőhiány”. In: Munkaerőpiaci tükör, MTA Közgazdaság- és Regionális Tudományi Kutatóközpont Közgazdaság-tudományi Intézet. Budapest, 94-108.

Hrebiniak LG, Alutto JA (1972) Personal and role-related factors in the development of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (4): 555-573.

Hrebiniak LG (1971) A multivariate analysis of professional and organizational commitment orientations among teachers and nurses. Doctoral Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Huhtala M, Feldt T (2016) The path from ethical organisational culture to employee commitment: mediating roles of value congruence and work engagement. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 1 (1): 1-14.

Kiss Cs (2013) A szervezeti elkötelezettség és a munka-család konf-liktus összefüggései az ügyfélszolgálati munkában [Organi-zational Commitment and Work-Family Conflict in Customer Service Centres]. PhD Thesis, Corvinus University of Budapest.

Krajcsák Z (2014) Alkalmazotti elkötelezettségi profilok egyes speciális munkaválallói csoportokban [Workplace commitment profiles in special groups of employees]. PhD Thesis, Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

Kurtessis J, Eisenberger R, Fod M, Buffardi L, Stewart K, Adis C (2015) Perceived organizational support: a meta-analytic evaluation of organizational support theory. Journal of Management 20 (10): 1-31.

Lambert SJ (2006) Both art and science: employing organizational documentation in workplace-based research. In: Pitt-Catsoup-hes M, Kossek EE, Sweet S (Eds) The work and family handbook: multi-disciplinary perspectives, methods, and approaches. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 503-525.

Lipinskiene D (2008) The examination of relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of employees. Ekonomika ir vadyba: aktualijos ir perspektyvos 4 (13) 282-289.

Mathieu JE, Zajac DM (1990) A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin 108 (2): 171-194.

Meyer JP, Allen NJ (1984) Testing the “side-bet theory” of organizational commitment: some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology 69 (3): 372-378.

Meyer JP, Stanley DJ, Herscovitch L, Topolnytsky L (2002) Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: a meta - analysis of antecedents, correlates and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior 61 (1): 20-52.

Miner J (1993) Role motivation theories. Routledge: London.

Moore WE (1965) The impact of industry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Morrow PC (1983) Concept redundancy in organizational research: the case of work commitment. The Academy of Management Review 8 (3): 486-500.

Mosadeghrad M, Ferdosi M (2013) Leadership, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in healthcare sector: proposing and testing a model. Mater Sociomed 25 (2): 121-126.

Mowday RT, Porter LW, Steers RM (1982) Employee-organizational linkages. New York: Academic Press.

Mueller CW, Wallace JE, Price JL (1992) Employee commitment: resolving some issues. Work and Occupations 19 (3): 211-236.

O’Reilly CA, Chatman J (1986) Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: the effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 71 (3): 492-499.

Parsons T (1964) The Social Systems. New York: Free Press.

Ritzer G, Trice HM (1969) An empirical study of Howard Becker’s side-bet theory. Social Forces 47: 475-479.

Rizqi A, Saptoto R (2015) The effects of pay satisfaction and affective commitment on turnover intention. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology 4 (2): 57-70.

Rothwell A, Arnold J (2007) Self-perceived employability: development and validation of a scale. Personnel Review 36 (1): 23-41.

Scarbrough H (1999) Knowledge as work: conflicts in the management of knowledge workers. Technology and Strategic Management 11 (1): 5-16.

Smith CA, Organ D, Near J (1983) Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology 68 (4): 653-663.

Szabó A (2016) A munkavállalói elkötelezettség növelésének hatása és lehetőségei [Impact and possibilities of increasing employee commitment]. Opus et Educatio 3 (4): 439-450.

Thornton R (1970) Organizational involvement and commitment to organization and profession. Administrative Science Quarterly 15 (4): 417-427.

Vardaman J, Allen D, Otondo R, Hancock J, Shore L, Rogers B (2016) Social comparisons and organizational support: implications for commitment and retention. Human Relations 69 (7): 1483-1505.

Wang K, Chou C, Huang J (2010) A study of work values, professional commitment, turnover intention and related factors among clinical nurses. Hu Li Za Zhi 57 (1): 22-34.

Wasti S (2003) Organizational commitment, turnover intentions and the influence of cultural values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 76 (3): 303-321.

Yahaya R, Ebrahim F (2016) Leadership styles and organizational commitment: literature review. Journal of Management Development 35 (2): 190-216.

Yamao S, Sekiguchi T (2015) Employee commitment to corporate globalization: the role of English language proficiency and human resource practices. Journal of World Business 50 (1): 168-179.

Yousef DA (2017) Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and attitudes toward organizational change: a study in the local government. International Journal of Public Administration 40 (1): 77-88.