In-situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites through mechanical stabilization using industrial waste products
The present study aimed to assess the stabilization performance of fly ash, blast furnace slag and quick lime for heavy metals in contaminated soil at a landfill site at Kolkata, West Bengal, India. The physical properties and strength parameters of the contaminated soil substantially increased after additives application. Moreover, the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate of the polluted soil were found almost nil after optimum blending of the additives mechanically with the soil and post-curing for 7 days. The numerical modeling studies were also carried out using PLAXISTM 3D software to ascertain the improvement of safety factor and deformation caused at the foundation level of an embankment constructed on such stabilized soil. The vertical displacement of the embankment founded on stabilized soil reduced from 194.3 to 136.3 mm and the safety factor of the embankment slope (1 V:1.5 H) increased from 2.5 to 3.2 under drained condition.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Bingöl, D., Veli, S., Zor, S., & Özdemir, U. (2012). Analysis of adsorption of reactive azo dye onto CuCl2 doped polyaniline using Box–Behnken design approach. Synthetic Metals, 162(17–18), 1566–1571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2012.07.011
Bureau of Indian Standard. (n.d.). Methods of test for soils (IS 2720). New Delhi, India.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. (2007). Canadian environmental quality guidelines. https://ccme.ca/en/current-activities/canadian-environmental-quality-guidelines
Derringer, G., & Suich, R. (1980). Simultaneous optimization of several response variables. Journal of Quality Technology, 12(4), 214–219. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224065.1980.11980968
Dyson, A. P., & Tolooiyan, A. (2018). Optimisation of strength reduction finite element method codes for slope stability analysis. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 3(1), 38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41062-018-0148-1
Du, Y.-J., Wei, M.-L., Reddy, K. R., Jin, F., Wu, H.-L., & Liu, Z.-B. (2014). New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: Leaching, strength and microstructure characterization. Journal of Environmental Management, 146, 179–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.035
Estabragh, A. R., Kholoosi, M. M., Ghaziani, F., & Javadi, A. A. (2017). Stabilization and solidification of a clay soilcontaminated with MTBE. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 143(9), 04017054. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001248
Gong, Y. Y., Zhao, D. Y., & Wang, Q. L. (2018). An overview of field-scale studies on remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids: Technical progress over the last decade. Water Research, 147, 440–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.024
Horpibulsuk, S., Rachan, R., & Raksachon, Y. (2009). Role of fly ash on strength and microstructure development in blended cement stabilized silty clay. Soils Found, 49(1), 85–98. https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.49.85
Hu, Y., & Cheng, H. F. (2013). Application of stochastic models in identification and apportionment of heavy metal pollution sources in the surface soils of a large-scale region. Environmental Science & Technology, 47, 3752–3760. https://doi.org/10.1021/es304310k
Ismail, M. A., Joer, H. A., Randolph, M. F., & Meritt, A. (2002). Cementation of porous materials using calcite. Geotechnique, 52(5), 313–324. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.2002.52.5.313
Maheshwari, R., Gupta, S., & Das, K. (2015). Impact of landfill waste on health: An overview. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 1(4), 17–23.
Maiti, S. K., De, S., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite – A case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 391–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.019
Mulligan, C. N., Yong, R. N., & Gibbs, B. F. (2001). Remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils and groundwater: An evaluation. Engineering Geology, 60(1–4), 193–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-7952(00)00101-0
Rachman, R. M., Bahri, A. S., & Trihadiningrum, Y. (2018). Stabilization and solidification of tailings from a traditional gold mine using Portland cement. Environmental Engineering Research, 23(2), 189–194. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2017.104
Raja, R., & Pal, S. (2019). Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils by solidification/stabilization with fly ash, quicklime and blast furnance slag. Journal of Indian Chemical Society, 96(4), 481–486.
Tica, D., Udovic, M., & Lestan, D. (2011). Immobilization of potentially toxic metals using different soil amendments. Chemosphere, 85, 577–583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.06.085
Turan, N. G., Mesci, B., & Ozgonenel, O. (2013). Response surface modeling of Cu(II) removal from electroplating waste by adsorption: Application of Box–Behnken experimental design. CLEAN – Soil, Air, and Water, 41(3), 304–312. https://doi.org/10.1002/clen.201100720
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (1992). Method 1311: Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Washington, DC.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2002). Chemical stabilization of mixed organic and metal compounds. CRC, Boca Raton.
Wang, J. R., Ma, B. G., & Li, X. G. (2014). The solidification and hydration products of magnesium phosphate cement with Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+. Journal of Functional Materials, 45(5), 5060–5064.
Xi, Y., Wu, X., & Xiong, H. (2014). Solidification/Stabilization of Pb-contaminated soils with cement and other additives. Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 23(8), 887–898. https://doi.org/10.1080/15320383.2014.890168
Xia, W.-Y., Feng, Y.-S., Du, Y.-J., Reddy, K. R., & Wei, M.-L. (2018). Solidification and stabilization of heavy metal-contaminated industrial site soil using KMP binder. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(6), 04018080. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0002264
Xu, M., & Lu, N. (2012). Research on removing heavy metals from mine tailings. Disaster Advances, 5, 116–120.
Zhang, Z., Guo, G., Teng, Y., Wang, J., Rhee, J. S., Wang, S., & Li, F. (2015). Screening and assessment of solidification/stabilization amendments suitable for soils of lead-acid battery contaminated site. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 288, 140–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.02.015