Share:


Field dependent–independent cognitive style and creativity from the process and product-oriented approaches: a systematic review

    Marco Giancola   Affiliation
    ; Massimiliano Palmiero Affiliation
    ; Simonetta D’Amico Affiliation

Abstract

Creativity is a multifaceted construct that can be defined both in terms of process (e.g.,divergent thinking) and product (e.g., a poem). Across years, it has been related to different cognitive and personality variables, including cognitive styles. The current systematic review aimed to summarize the literature on the relationships between field dependence–independence and creativity, considering both the creative process and creative production approaches. We selected eight studies using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses rules. Findings revealed that a consistent number of studies focused on creative process mainly in terms of divergent thinking instead of convergent thinking, also providing misleading results. Additionally, only two studies focused on creative production, showing that field independents were more creative than field dependents. Given the contradictory results and the paucity of studies, we concluded that the association between field dependence–independence and creativity needs to be further investigated by more accurate empirical explorations. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Keyword : cognitive styles, creativity, divergent thinking, field dependence–independence, real-world creative production, systematic review

How to Cite
Giancola, M., Palmiero, M., & D’Amico, S. (2022). Field dependent–independent cognitive style and creativity from the process and product-oriented approaches: a systematic review. Creativity Studies, 15(2), 542–559. https://doi.org/10.3846/cs.2022.15988
Published in Issue
Aug 18, 2022
Abstract Views
117
PDF Downloads
80
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Abraham, A. (2018). Cambridge fundamentals of neuroscience in psychology. The neuroscience of creativity. Cambridge University Press.

Acar, S., Tadik, H., Myers, D., Sman, van der C., & Uysal, R. (2021). Creativity and well‐being: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Creative Behavior, 55(3), 738–751. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.485

Amabile, T. M. (2018). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429501234

Amabile, T. M. (1982). Social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43(5), 997–1013. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.5.997

Arbuthnott, K. D., & Sutter, G. C. (2019). Songwriting for nature: Increasing nature connection and well-being through musical creativity. Environmental Education Research, 25(9), 1300–1318. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2019.1608425

Bagley, Ch., & Mallick, K. (1998). Field independence, cultural context and academic achievement: A commentary. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68(4), 581–587. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1998.tb01313.x

Baranovská, A., Petlák, E., & Doktorová, D. (2017). Relationship between dimensions of creativity, dependency and independency from the field, need and ability to achieve cognitive closure. AD ALTA: Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 7(2), 14–19.

Batt, R., Palmiero, M., Nakatani, Ch., & Leeuwen, van C. (2010). Style and spectral power: Processing of abstract and representational art in artists and non-artists. Perception, 39(12), 1659–1671. https://doi.org/10.1068/p6747

Benedek, M., Jauk, E., Sommer, M., Arendasy, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity. Intelligence, 46, 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.05.007

Bloomberg, M. (1967). An inquiry into the relationship between field independence-dependence and creativity. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 67(1), 127–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1967.10543058

Bloomberg, M. (1971). Creativity as related to field independence and mobility. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 118(1), 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1971.10532588

Borland, J. H. (1988). Cognitive controls, cognitive styles, and divergent production in gifted preadolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 11(4), 57–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/016235328801100407

Caldara, R., Zhou, X., & Miellet, S. (2010). Putting culture under the “Spotlight” reveals universal information use for face recognition. PLoS One, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009708

Chávez-Eakle, R. A., Eakle, A. J., & Cruz-Fuentes, C. (2012). The multiple relations between creativity and personality. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 76–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.649233

Cropley, A. J. (1990). Creativity and mental health in everyday life. Creativity Research Journal, 3(3), 167–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419009534351

Cropley, A. (2006). In praise of convergent thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 18(3), 391–404. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326934crj1803_13

Fancourt, D., & Steptoe, A. (2019). Effects of creativity on social and behavioral adjustment in 7- to 11‐year‐old children. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1438(1), 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13944

Fergusson, L. C. (1992). Field independence and art achievement in meditating and nonmeditating college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(3), 1171–1175. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1992.75.3f.1171

Fergusson, L. C. (1993). Field independence, transcendental meditation, and achievement in college art: A reexamination. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77(3), 1104–1106. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1993.77.3f.1104

Fink, A., & Woschnjak, S. (2011). Creativity and personality in professional dancers. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(6), 754–758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.024

Frith, E., Elbich, D. B., Christensen, A. P., Rosenberg, M. D., Chen, Q., Kane, M. J., Silvia, P. J., Seli, P., & Beaty, R. E. (2021). Intelligence and creativity share a common cognitive and neural basis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 150(4), 609–632. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000958

Giancola, M., Palmiero, M., Piccardi, L., & D’Amico, S. (2021). The contribution of planning to real-world creativity: The moderating role of agreeableness. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2021.100890

Guilford, J. P. (1967). Creativity: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Creative Behavior, 1(1), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1967.tb00002.x

Hee Kim, K. (2008). Meta-analyses of the relationship of creative achievement to both IQ and divergent thinking test scores. Journal of Creative Behavior, 42(2), 106–130. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2008.tb01290.x

Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R. A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The Four C model of creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013688

Kaufman, J. C., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (2010). The Cambridge handbook of creativity. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511763205

Kozhevnikov, M., Ho, Sh., & Koh, E. (2021). The role of visual abilities and cognitive style in artistic and scientific creativity of Singaporean secondary school students. Journal of Creative Behavior, 56(2), 164–181. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.522

Kozhevnikov, M., Kosslyn, S., & Shephard, J. (2005). Spatial versus object visualizers: A new characterization of visual cognitive style. Memory and Cognition, 33(4), 710–726. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195337

Lao, J., Vizioli, L., & Caldara, R. (2013). Culture modulates the temporal dynamics of global/local processing. Culture and Brain, 1(2–4), 158–174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40167-013-0012-2

Lei, W., Deng, W., Zhu, R., Runco, M. A., Yun Dai, D., & Hu, W. (2021). Does cognitive style moderate expected evaluation and adolescents’ creative performance: An empirical study. Journal of Creative Behavior, 55(1), 120–129. https://doi.org/10.1002/jocb.439

Li, Ch., Mu, X., Tan, Y., Gu, Ch., Hu, B. Y., & Fan, C. (2020). Do field-dependent individuals tend to have lower creativity than field-independent ones? The role of informational cues in electronic brainstorming. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1821715

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J., & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 62(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.006

Martinsen, Ø. (1997). The construct of cognitive style and its implications for creativity. High Ability Studies, 8(2), 135–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359813970080202

Mefoh, Ph. C., Nwoke, M. B., Chukwuorji, J. C., & Chijioke, A. O. (2017). Effect of cognitive style and gender on adolescents’ problem solving ability. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 25, 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2017.03.002

Miller, A. L. (2007). Creativity and cognitive style: The relationship between field-dependence–independence, expected evaluation, and creative performance. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 1(4), 243–246. https://doi.org/10.1037/1931-3896.1.4.243

Niaz, M., Saud de Núñez, G., & Ruiz de Pineda, I. (2000). Academic performance of high school students as a function of mental capacity, cognitive style, mobility–fixity dimension, and creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 34(1), 18–29. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2000.tb01200.x

Noppe, L. D. (1985). The relationship of formal thought and cognitive styles to creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 19(2), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.1985.tb00641.x

Noppe, L. D., & Gallagher, J. M. (1977). A cognitive style approach to creative thought. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41(1), 85–90. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4101_14

Palmiero, M., Giulianella, L., Guariglia, P., Boccia, M., D’Amico, S., & Piccardi, L. (2019). The dancers’ visuospatial body map explains their enhanced divergence in the production of motor forms: Evidence in the early development. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00768

Palmiero, M., Guariglia, P., Crivello, R., & Piccardi, L. (2020). The relationships between musical expertise and divergent thinking. Acta Psychologica, 203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2019.102990

Palmiero, M., Nakatani, Ch., & Leuween, van C. (2017). Visual creativity across cultures: A comparison between Italians and Japanese. Creativity Research Journal, 29(1), 86–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2017.1263514

Palmiero, M., Nori, R., & Piccardi, L. (2016). Visualizer cognitive style enhances visual creativity. Neuroscience Letters, 615, 98–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.01.032

Qian, M., Plucker, J. A., & Yang, X. (2019). Is creativity domain specific or domain general? Evidence from multilevel explanatory item response theory models. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2019.100571

Riding, R. J., & Pearson, R. D. (1987). The relationship between art performance, extraversion and field-independence in secondary-age pupils. Research in Education, 38(1), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/003452378703800103

Rosengren, S., Eisend, M., Koslow, S., & Dahlen, M. (2020). A meta-analysis of when and how advertising creativity works. Journal of Marketing, 84(6), 39–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242920929288

Runco, M. A., & Acar, S. (2012). Divergent thinking as an indicator of creative potential. Creativity Research Journal, 24(1), 66–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2012.652929

Saeki, N., Fan, X., & Dusen, van L. (2001). A comparative study of creative thinking of American and Japanese college students. Journal of Creative Behavior, 35(1), 24–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2001.tb01219.x

Saracho, O. N. (1992). Preschool children’s cognitive style and play and implications for creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 5(1), 35–47. https://doi.org/10.1080/10400419209534421

Saurenman, D. A., & Michael, W. B. (1980). Differential placement of high-achieving and low-achieving gifted pupils in grades four, five, and six on measures of field dependence-field independence, creativity, and self-concept. Gifted Child Quarterly, 24(2), 81–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/001698628002400207

Shao, Y., Zhang, Ch., Zhou, J., Gu, T., & Yuan, Y. (2019). How does culture shape creativity? A mini-review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01219

Silvia, P. J., Wigert, B., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Assessing creativity with self-report scales: A review and empirical evaluation. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(1), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024071

Spotts, J. V., & Mackler, B. (1967). Relationships of field-dependent and field-independent cognitive styles to creative test performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24(1), 239–268. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1967.24.1.239

Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1997). Are cognitive styles still in style? American Psychologist, 52(7), 700–712. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.7.700

Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1991). An investment theory of creativity and its development. Human Development, 34(1), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1159/000277029

Wang, Y., Huang, Q., Davison, R. M., & Yang, F. (2021). Role stressors, job satisfaction, and employee creativity: the cross-level moderating role of social media use within teams. Information and Management, 58(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2020.103317

Witkin, H. A., & Asch, S. E. (1948). Studies in space orientation: IV. Further experiments on perception of the upright with displaced visual fields. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38(6), 762–782. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0053671

Witkin, H. A., Moore, C. A., Goodenough, D. R., & Cox, P. W. (1977). Field–dependent and field–independent cognitive styles and their educational implications. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 1–64. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543047001001

Yuanxi Lee, L., Talhelm, Th., Zhang, X., Hu, B., & Lv, X. (2021). Holistic thinkers process divided-attention tasks faster: From the global/local perspective. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01879-1

Zhang, L. (2017). The value of intellectual styles. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316014561