Employee engagement and remuneration justice in Lithuania and Poland


The aim of the article is the analysis of the relationship between work engagement and evaluation of remuneration justice in the context of the dimensions of organizational justice in Lithuania and Poland. The starting point for the research was the identification the essence of evaluation of remuneration justice from the perspective of management sciences. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of the views on organizational justice allowed to define the key aspects of remuneration justice necessary for a detailed exploration of the studied area. They point to the need for a comprehensive evaluation of remuneration justice, integrating all its aspects, not only the distribution aspect. The strong link between fair remuneration and work engagement draws attention to the conditions for effective remuneration instruments. On the basis of the results of empirical research, the assessment of the fairness of remuneration by Polish and Lithuanian employees was diagnosed. In Lithuania, 9% and in Poland 52% of respondents described their current salary as fair. Correlations between the examined constructs were examined. It is concluded that for both working Lithuanians and working Poles fair compensation means remuneration appropriate to the work performed. The sense of fairness of remuneration coexists with distributional, procedural and interactive justice and with the lack of feeling of being exploited.

Keyword : remuneration justice, work engagement, organizational justice, Poland, Lithuania

How to Cite
Juchnowicz, M., Gruževskis, B., & Kinowska, H. (2020). Employee engagement and remuneration justice in Lithuania and Poland. Business: Theory and Practice, 21(2), 869-879.
Published in Issue
Dec 23, 2020
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adams, S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. Academic Press.

Armstrong, M. (2013). Zarządzanie wynagrodzeniami. Oficyna Wolters Kluwer Business.

Bies, R. J. (2001). Interactional in (justice): the sacred and the profane. In J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in Organizational Justice. Stanford University Press.

Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., Samoliuk, N., & Yurchyk, H. (2020). Impact of income distribution on social and economic wellbeing of the state. Sustainability, 12(1), 429.

Byrne, Z. S., & Cropanzano, R. (2001). The history of organizational justice: the founders speak. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: from theory to practice (pp. 3–26). Laurence Erlbaum.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445.

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Social exchange theory: an interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874–899.

Crow, M. S., Lee, C. B., & Joo, J. J. (2012). Organizational justice and organizational commitment among South Korean police officers: an investigation of job satisfaction as a mediator. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(2), 402–423.

Dayan, M., & Di Benedetto, A. (2008). Procedural and interactional justice perceptions and teamwork quality. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 23(8), 566–576.

Domański, H. (2010). Legitymizacja nierówności. Nauka, 1, 49–66.

Dubis, M. (2011). Wpływ sprawiedliwości wynagrodzeń na satysfakcję z płacy.ły

Eurofund. (2015). 2015 European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS).

European Values. (2011). European value study.

Greenberg, J. (1993). The social side of fairness: interpersonal and informational classes of organizational justice. In R. Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: approaching fairness in human resource management. Hillsdale.

Gruževskis, B., Sudnickas, T., & Urbanovič, J. (2018). Impact of remuneration for work on social changes in Lithuania. Education of Economists and Managers, 49(3), 129–147.

Hajec, M. (2018). Wykorzystanie teorii sprawiedliwości w decyzjach płacowych.

Harris, M. M., Anseel, F., & Lievens, F. (2008). Keeping up with the Joneses: a field study of the relationships among upward, lateral, and downward comparisons and pay level satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 665–673.

Juchnowicz, M. (2012). Zaangażowanie pracowników. Sposoby oceny i motywowania. PWE.

Juchnowicz, M. (2014). Charakterystyka zarządzania kapitałem ludzkim na tle koncepcji zasobowej. In M. Juchnowicz (Ed.), Zarządzanie kapitałem ludzkim. Procesy – narzędzia – aplikacje (pp. 132–136). PWE.

Juchnowicz, M., & Kinowska, H. (2017). Strategie wynagrodzeń w rożnych strategiach biznesowych. In A. Sopińska, & P. Wachowiak (Eds.), Wyzwania współczesnego zarządzania strategicznego. Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH.

Juchnowicz, M., & Kinowska, H. (2018). Factors influencing the evaluation of remuneration justice. Kwartalnik Nauk o Przedsiębiorstwie, 48(3), 41–52.

Klendauer, R., & Deller, J. (2009). Organizational justice and managerial commitment in corporate mergers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(1), 29–45.

Koen, J., Low, J. T. H., & Van Vianen, A. (2020). Job preservation efforts: when does job insecurity prompt performance? Career Development International, 25(3), 287–305.

Leung, K. (2014). Distributive justice and interpersonal interaction across cultures in the context of expatriate pay disparity in multinationals. In J. J. Boddewyn (Ed.), Multidisciplinary insights from new AIB fellows research in global strategic management (pp. 29–55). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What should be done with equity theory? New approaches to the study of fairness in social relationships. In K. Gergen, M. Greenberg, & R. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: advances in theory and research. Springer-Verlag.

Lewicka, D. (2019). Zarządzanie kapitałem ludzkim a zaangażowanie pracownikow. C.H. Beck.

Macko, M. (2009). Poczucie sprawiedliwości organizacyjnej a zachowania pracowników. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Wydziału Nauk Społecznych Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu.

Macko, M., & Grudziński, A. (2014). Rola poczucia sprawiedliwości i cynizmu organizacyjnego w inicjowaniu pozytywnych i negatywnych zachowań wobec pracodawcy. Edukacja Ekonomistów i Menedżerów. Problemy, Innowacje, Projekty, 1(31), 77–92.

Mishchuk, H., Samoliuk, N., & Bilan, Y. (2019). Measuring social justice in the light of effectiveness of public distributive policy. Administration & Public Management Review, 1(32), 63–76.

Petersen, B. K. (2014). Justice and culture in the perception of compensation fairness. Argumenta Oeconomica Cracoviensia, 2(11), 9–24.

Reinis Fisher. (2020). Average salary in European Union 2018.

Sweeney, P. D., & McFarlin, D. B. (2005). Wage comparisons with similar and dissimilar others. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(1), 113–131.

Szulist, J. (2016). Rola sprawiedliwej płacy w kształtowaniu wolności odpowiedzialnej człowieka. Studia Koszalińsko-Kołobrzeskie, 23, 321–335.

Terpstra, D. E., & Honoree, A. L. (2003). The relative importance of external, individual and procedural equity to pay satisfaction. Compensation and Benefits Review, 35(6), 67–74.

Thibaut, J., & Walker, L. (1975). Procedural justice: a psychological analysis. Erlbaum.

Till, R. E., & Karren, R. (2011). Organizational justice perceptions and pay level satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(1), 42–57.

Williams, M., McDaniel, M., & Nguyen, N. (2006). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of pay level satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 392–413.

Yean, T. F. (2016). Organizational justice: A conceptual discussion. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 798–803.