Impulse buying behaviour at the retail checkout: an investigation of select antecedents
The remarkable growth of the Indian retail landscape over the last decade is reflected in the proliferation of supermarkets, departmental stores and hypermarkets in India. Evolving consumption patterns, raising living standards has sparked a huge demand in the food and grocery retailing. Impulse buying is a time-tested tactic by which retailers grab customer’s attention and boost average purchase value. Prior research has deliberated extensively on impulse buying in the store and its determinants. However, little effort has been made to examine the impulse buying behaviour, particularly at the retail checkout. To bridge this gap, we conducted an empirical study in the leading food and grocery modern retail stores in selected Tier I and Tier II cities in the state of Karnataka, India. The data was collected from 385 respondents using a structured questionnaire. The responses were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression. Our study shows that impulse buying at the store checkout area is minimal and sporadic for most of the product categories at the checkout. Impulse buying at the checkout is instigated by factors such as store environment, credit card availability, momentary mood, in-store promotion, offers and discounts and large merchandise. The study has important implications for retail stores by emphasising on the choice of merchandise offered for sale at the checkout area. Further, the investigation reveals that Indian shoppers are health-conscious and cautious about their purchase at the checkout rather than being impulsive.
Keyword : impulse buying, grocery retailing, in-store promotion, situational factors, external factors, retail checkout
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Adams, S. (2006, August 2). Self-checkouts up; impulse buys down; Stores see large drop in purchases of items such as candy, magazines. The Patriot Ledger, 17. https://search.proquest.com/docview/242732536/A7F3EFDAFF2C4CE6PQ/9?accountid=193930
Ali, A., & Hasnu, S. (2013). An analysis of in-store shopping environment on consumers’ impulse buying: evidence from Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 5(2), 560–570.
Applebaum, W. (1951). Studying customer behavior in retail stores. Journal of Marketing, 16(2), 172–178. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224295101600204
Atulkar, S., & Kesari, B. (2018). Role of consumer traits and situational factors on impulse buying: does gender matter? International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 46(4), 386–405. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-12-2016-0239
Badgaiyan, A. J., & Verma, A. (2015). Does urge to buy impulsively differ from impulsive buying behaviour? Assessing the impact of situational factors. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 145–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.10.002
Baker, J., Grewal, D., & Parasuraman, A. (1994). The influence of store environment on quality inferences and store image. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(4), 328–339. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394224002
Baron, S., Harris, K., & Davies, B. J. (1996). Oral participation in retail service delivery: a comparison of the roles of contact personnel and customers. European Journal of Marketing, 30(9), 75–90. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569610130052
Beatty, S. E., & Elizabeth Ferrell, M. (1998). Impulse buying: Modeling its precursors. Journal of Retailing, 74(2), 169–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80092-X
Belk, R. W. (1975). Situational variables and consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 2(3), 157–164. https://doi.org/10.1086/208627
Bell, D. R., Corsten, D., & Knox, G. (2011). From point of purchase to path to purchase: how preshopping factors drive unplanned buying. Journal of Marketing, 75(1), 31–45. https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.75.1.31
Berkman, H. W., & Gilson, C. C. (1986). Consumer behavior: concepts and strategies (3rd ed.). Kent Pub. Co.
Bettman, J. R. (1979). Memory factors in consumer choice: a review. Journal of Marketing, 43(2), 37. https://doi.org/10.2307/1250740
Bhakat, R. S., & Muruganantham, G. (2013). A review of impulse buying behavior. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 5(3), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijms.v5n3p149
Bhuvaneswari, V., & Krishnan, J. (2015). A review of literature on impulse buying behaviour of consumers in Brick & Mortar and Click only stores. International Journal of Management Research and Social Science, 2(3), 84–90.
Bitner, M. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 69–82. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299005400206
Clover, V. T. (1950). Relative importance of impulse-buying in retail stores. Journal of Marketing, 15(1), 66–70. https://doi.org/10.2307/1247083
Cottet, P., Lichtle, M.-C., & Plichon, V. (2010, June). The influence of ambient factors in services: the compared effects of perceived colors and store layout. In The 11th International Research Seminar in Service Managemen (pp. 1–24). http://www.lalondeconference.com/SM/2010_lalonde_seminar/papers/p08-112-cottet-plichon-lichtlerev25032010.pdf
de Vet, H. C. W., Terwee, C. B., Mokkink, L. B., & Knol, D. L. (2011). Measurement in medicine: a practical guide. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511996214
Dholakia, U. M. (2000). Temptation and resistance: An integrated model of consumption impulse formation and enactment. Psychology and Marketing, 17(11), 955–982. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6793(200011)17:11<955::AIDMAR3>3.0.CO;2-J
Eder, R. (2002). Pharmacy checkstand is prime spot to encourage impulse purchases, 24(15). http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/7813091/pharmacy-checkstand-prime-spotencourage-impulse-purchases
Fatima, D. (2013). Impact of organized retailing on Unorganised retailing in India (Vols. 1–321). University of Lucknow.
FICCI. (2020). Retail & internal trade. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerece and Industry. http://www.ficci.in/sector.asp?sectorid=33
Foroughi, A., Buang, N. A., Senik, Z. C., Hajmirsadeghi, R. S., & Bagheri, M. M. (2014). The causes of impulse buying behavior among Iranian shoppers. Asian Social Science, 10(21), 64–72. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v10n21p64
Ghani, U., & Kamal, Y. (2010). The impact of in-store stimuli on the impulse purchase behaviour of consumers in Pakistan. The Interdiscplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 8(2), 155–160. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308025362_The_Impact_of_In-Store_Stimuli_on_the_Impulse_Purchase_Behaviour_of_Consumers_in_Pakistan
Ghosh, P., Tripathi, V., & Kumar, A. (2010). Customer expectations of store attributes: A study of organized retail outlets in India. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property, 9(1), 75–87. https://doi.org/10.1057/rlp.2009.27
Global Data Lab. (2019). Subnational Human Development Index (4.0). Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. https://globaldatalab.org/shdi/shdi/IND/?interpolation=0&extrapolation=0&nearest_real=0%0Ahttps://globaldatalab.org/shdi/shdi/
Gupta, S., Xu, H., & Sahu, V. (2009). Impact of store size on impulse purchase. The IUP Journal of Marketing Management, 1–16. https://www.iupindia.in/209/IJMM_Impulse_Purchase_7.html
Harmancioglu, N., Finney, R. Z., & Joseph, M. (2009). Impulse purchases of new products: An empirical analysis. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(1), 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420910933344
Hawaldar, I. T., Ullal, M. S., Birau, F. R., & Spulbar, C. M. (2019). Trapping fake discounts as drivers of real revenues and their impact on consumer’s behavior in India: A case study. Sustainability, 11(17), 4637. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174637
Hilliard, M. (2014). Food products in Impulse buying areas of Grocery Stores: Is temptation making Americans obese? Texas A&M University. https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/157597/HILLIARD-DOCUMENT-2014.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=1
Hu, H., & Jasper, C. R. (2006). Social cues in the store environment and their impact on store image. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 34(1), 25–48. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550610642800
Husnain, M., Rehman, B., Syed, F., & Akhtar, M. W. (2019). Personal and in-store factors influencing impulse buying behavior among generation Y consumers of small cities. Business Perspectives and Research, 7(1), 92–107. https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533718800625
IBEF. (2018). Karnataka: The Silicon Valley of India (Issue April). https://www.ibef.org/download/Karnataka-April-20181.pdf
IBEF. (2019). Retail. India Brand Equity Foundation. https://www.ibef.org/download/retail-jan-2019.pdf
IBEF. (2020). About Karnataka: information on tourism industry, exports, economy & geography. India Brand Equity Foundation. https://www.ibef.org/states/karnataka.aspx
Iyer, E. S. (1989). Unplanned purchasing: Knowledge of shopping environment and time pressure. Journal of Retailing, 65(1), 40–57.
Iyer, E. S., & Ahlawat, S. S. (1987). Deviations from a Shopping Plan: When and Why do consumers not buy items as planned. Advances in Consumer Research, 14(1), 246–250.
Jones, M. A., Reynolds, K. E., Weun, S., & Beatty, S. E. (2003). The product-specific nature of impulse buying tendency. Journal of Business Research, 56(7), 505–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(01)00250-8
Kacen, J. J., & Lee, J. A. (2002). The influence of culture on consumer impulsive buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(2), 163–176. https://doi.org/10.1207/153276602760078686
Karmali, N. (2007, December). “Meet Coke’s next boss? An interview with Muhtar Kent, CEO – Coca Cola.” Business India, December, 18.
Kollat, D. T., & Willett, R. P. (1967). Customer impulse purchasing behavior. Journal of Marketing, 4(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224376700400102
Kollat, D. T., & Willett, R. P. (1969). Is impulse purchasing really a useful concept for marketing decisions? Journal of Marketing, 33(1), 79–83. https://doi.org/10.2307/1248750
Kotler, P. (1974). Atmospherics as a marketing tool. Journal of Retailing, 49, 48–64.
KPMG. (2018). India soars higher. https://home.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/au/pdf/2018/india-soars-higher-2018.pdf
Lin, Y. H., & Chen, C. Y. (2012). Adolescents’ impulse buying: Susceptibility to interpersonal influence and fear of negative evaluation. Social Behavior and Personality, 40(3), 353–358. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2012.40.3.353
Luo, X. (2005). How does shopping with others influence impulsive purchasing? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 288–294. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp1504_3
Maister, D. H. (1985). The Psychology of waiting lines. In J. Czepiel, M. A. Solomon, & C. F. Surprenant (Eds.), The service encounter: managing employee/customer interaction in service businesses (pp. 113–123). Lexington Books. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390152103634
Mischel, H. N., & Mischel, W. (1983). The development of children’s knowledge of self-control strategies. Child Development, 54(3), 603–619. https://doi.org/10.2307/1130047
Mohan, G., Sivakumaran, B., & Sharma, P. (2013). Impact of store environment on impulse buying behavior. European Journal of Marketing, 47(10), 1711–1732. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-03-2011-0110
MSME-Development Institute. (2016). Karnataka State Industrial Profile 2015−2016. MSME-Development Institute. http://dcmsme.gov.in/dips/state_wise_dips/state_profile_karnatka_11316.pdf
NASSCOM. (2017). NASSCOM − AT Kearney Reveal Karnataka IT Potential. Firstpost. https://www.firstpost.com/business/biztech/nasscom-at-kearney-reveal-karnataka-it-potential-1866589.html
Nathanson, J. (2013). Are Smartphones making us less impulsive? Priceonomics. https://priceonomics.com/are-smartphonesmaking-us-less-impulsive/
Nethravathi, P. S. R., Bai, G. V., Spulbar, C., Suhan, M., Birau, R., Calugaru, T., Hawaldar, I. T. & Ejaz, A. (2020). Business intelligence appraisal based on customer behaviour profile by using hobby-based opinion mining in India: A case study. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 33(1), 1889−1908. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2020.1763822
Omar, O., & Kent, A. (2001). International airport influences on impulsive shopping: Trait and normative approach. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29(5), 226–235. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550110390887
Park, C. W., Iyer, E. S., & Smith, D. C. (1989). The effects of situational factors on in-store grocery shopping behavior: the role of store environment and time available for shopping. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(4), 422–433. https://doi.org/10.1086/209182
Pataskar, S. A. (2011). A study of organised retail business in selected cities in Western Maharashtra. Shivaji University, Kolhapur. http://hdl.handle.net/10603/23546
Peck, J., & Childers, T. L. (2006). If I touch it I have to have it: Individual and environmental influences on impulse purchasing. Journal of Business Research, 59(6), 765–769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.01.014
Piron, F. (1991). Defining impulse purchasing. Advances in Consumer Research, 18(1951), 509–514.
Pradhan, V. (2016). Study on impulsive buying behavior among consumers in supermarket in Kathmandu Valley. Journal of Business and Social Sciences Research, 1(2), 215–233. https://doi.org/10.3126/jbssr.v1i2.20926
Pugliese, T. (1998, April). Improving impulse potential [at the checkout counter]. Marketing Magazine, 103(16), 18. https://search.proquest.com/docview/227164218?accountid=193930
Raju, Kv., Kumar, Dp., & Srinivasa Raju, S. (2015). A comprehensive review of impulse purchase process and various factors affecting it. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 17(12), 81–107.
Rook, D. W. (1987). The buying impulse. Journal of Consumer Research, 14(2), 189–199. https://doi.org/10.1086/209105
Rook, D. W., & Fisher, R. J. (1995). Normative influences on impulsive buying behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(3), 305–313. https://doi.org/10.1086/209452
Rook, D. W., & Hoch, S. J. (1985). Consuming impulses. Advances in Consumer Research, NA-12, 23–27. https://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/6351/volumes/v12/NA-12
Sandoval, L., & Sawant, A. (2019). Retail sector expansion creates new opportunities for high-value products. In GAIN Report, United States Department of Agriculture. https://apps.fas.usda.gov/newgainapi/api/report/downloadreportbyfilename?filename=Retail%20Foods_New%20Delhi_India_7-17-2019.pdf
Schimmel, M., & Bekker, R. (2013). Deployment of express checkout lines at supermarkets. https://beta.vu.nl/nl/Images/werkstuk-schimmel_tcm235-335266.pdf
Schwarz, N., & Bohner, G. (1996). Feelings and their motivational implications: Moods and the action sequence. In P. Gollwitzer & J. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 119–145). The Guilford Press. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=1996-98326-006&site=ehost-live
Sharma, P., Sivakumaran, B., & Marshall, R. (2010). Impulse buying and variety seeking: A trait-correlates perspective. Journal of Business Research, 63(3), 276–283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.03.013
Sherman, E., Mathur, A., & Smith, R. B. (1997). Store environment and consumer purchase behavior: Mediating role of consumer emotions. Psychology and Marketing, 14(4), 361–378. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199707)14:4%3C361::AID-MAR4%3E3.0.CO;2-7
Shimp, T. A., & DeLozier, M. W. (1986). Promotion management and marketing communications. Dryden press. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1986.10673045
Stern, H. (1962). The significance of impulse buying today. Journal of Marketing (Pre 1986), 26(2), 59–62. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224296202600212
Streiner, D. L., Norman, G. R., & Cairney, J. (2015). Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199685219.001.0001
Suneera, T. (2019). Deloitte sees share of organised retail at 22% by 2021. Livemint. https://www.livemint.com/industry/retail/deloitte-sees-share-of-organised-retail-at-22-by-2021-1551176724113.html
Tauber, E. M. (1972). Why do people shop? Journal of Marketing, 36(4), 46–59. https://doi.org/10.2307/1250426
Taylor, S. (1994). Waiting for service: the relationship between delays and evaluations of service. Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 56–69. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252269
Ullal, M. S., Hawaldar, I. T., Mendon, S., & Joseph, N. (2020). The effect of artificial intelligence on the sales graph in the Indian market. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(4), 2940−2954. https://doi.org/10.9770/jesi.2020.7.4(24)
Ullal, M., & Hawaldar, I. T. (2018). Influence of advertisement on customers based on the AIDA model. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 16(4), 285−298. https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.16(4).2018.24
Ullal, M. S., Spulbar, C., Hawaldar, I. T., Popescu, V., Birau, R. (2021). The impact of online reviews on e-commerce sales in India: A case study. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 34(1), 1−15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2020.1865179
Van Riel, A. C. R., Semeijn, J., Ribbink, D., & Bomert-Peters, Y. (2012). Waiting for service at the checkout: Negative emotional responses, store image and overall satisfaction. Journal of Service Management, 23(2), 144–169. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564231211226097
Vinish, P., Pinto, P., Hawaldar, I. T. & Pinto, S. (2020). Impulse buying behavior among female shoppers: Exploring the effects of selected store environment elements. Innovative Marketing, 16(2), 54−70. https://doi.org/10.21511/im.16(2).2020.05
Vinish, P., Pinto, P., Hawaldar, I. T., Pinto, S. (2021). Antecedents of behavioral intention to use online food delivery services: An empirical investigation. Innovative Marketing, 17(1), 1−15. https://doi.org/10.21511/im.17(1).2021.01
Weiss, E. N., & Tucker, C. (2018). Queue management: Elimination, expectation, and enhancement. Business Horizons, 61(5), 671–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2018.05.002
Weun, S., Jones, M. A., & Beatty, S. E. (1998). Development and validation of the impulse buying tendency scale. Psychological Reports, 82(3), 1123–1133. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.82.3.1123-1133
Wheatley, J. J., & Chiu, J. S. Y. (1977). The effects of price, store image, and product and respondent characteristics on perceptions of quality. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(2), 181–186. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150467
Yoo, C., Park, J., & MacInnis, D. J. (1998). Effects of store characteristics and in-store emotional experiences on store attitude. Journal of Business Research, 42(3), 253–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00122-7
Youn, S., & Faber, R. J. (2000). Impulse buying: its relation to personality traits and cues. Advances in Consumer Research, 27(1), 179–185.
Yu, C., & Bastin, M. (2010). Hedonic shopping value and impulse buying behavior in transitional economies: A symbiosis in the Mainland China marketplace. Journal of Brand Management, 18(2), 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2010.32
Zhou, L., & Wong, A. (2003). Consumer impulse buying and in-store stimuli in Chinese supermarkets. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 16(2), 37–53. https://doi.org/10.1300/J046v16n02_03