To cooperate or to compete: a game theoretic analysis on ports in Malaysia and Singapore

    Joshua Ignatius Affiliation
    ; Tian Siang Tan Affiliation
    ; Lalitha Dhamotharan Affiliation
    ; Mark Goh Affiliation


The busiest container ports in the world are mostly situated in the Asian region, thus intensifying inter-port competition. Particularly unique in this region, is the shared history between Malaysia and Singapore, which was once ruled-under the British empire, has since become economic rivals for the Far East – Europe trade route. This provides a suitable context to investigate whether competition or a strategic alliance should be adopted for ports in terms of its benefit to the industry in the region as a whole. Specifically, this paper analyses the ocean freight traffic demand for the Far East-Europe route among three main transshipment ports located in Malaysia and Singapore: Port of Singapore (PSA), Port Klang (PKL), and Port of Tanjung Pelepas (PTP). The paper provides a scenario analysis of the 3-way interaction through a game theoretic model. The results suggest that a strategic alliance between PSA and PTP generates greater profitability to the current hub and spoke network, while PKL should not commit to any cooperative strategy with either PSA or PTP.

Keyword : port competition, port cooperation, game theory, Singapore, Malaysia, transshipment

How to Cite
Ignatius, J., Tan, T. S., Dhamotharan, L., & Goh, M. (2018). To cooperate or to compete: a game theoretic analysis on ports in Malaysia and Singapore. Technological and Economic Development of Economy, 24(4), 1776-1800.
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Sep 10, 2018
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