Comparison of optimum conditions when extracting PHAs from different waste sludge sources

    Meng-Shan Lu Affiliation
    ; Long-Li Lai Affiliation
    ; Yung-Pin Tsai Affiliation


Biological wastewater treatment plants produce great amounts of sludge daily. It is a very big loading (cost) for treating the waste sludge. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are a family of polyhydroxyesters. The technologies of extracting PHAs from wasted sewage sludges of municipal wastewater, fermentation industry and husbandry were developed in the study. In the NaOCl/SDS extraction technology, the concentration of NaOCl and liquid-solid ratio are two essential factors directly influencing extraction efficiency. The experimental results verified under the optimal conditions for extracting PHAs, the content of recovered PHAs was 44.2±0.89 mgPHA/gVSS and the purity of recovered PHAs was >99.5 wt% for the waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. For fermentation industry sludge, under the adequate extraction conditions for PHAs recovery, the content and purity of recovered PHAs were 18.8±0.66 mgPHA/gVSS and 50.6±6.83 wt%, respectively. For husbandry sludge, the content and purity of recovered PHAs were 33.7±0.16 mgPHA/gVSS and 76.7±5.2 wt%, respectively.

Keyword : biodegradable plastic, biopolymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), waste sludge

How to Cite
Lu, M.-S., Lai, L.-L., & Tsai, Y.-P. (2018). Comparison of optimum conditions when extracting PHAs from different waste sludge sources. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 26(3), 190-194.
Published in Issue
Oct 9, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Chen, G. Q. 2003. Production and applications of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates, in Biodegradable polymers and plastics. Springer, 155–166.

Doi, Y.; Abe, C. 1990. Biosynthesis and characterization of a new bacterial copolyester of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and, Macromolecules 23(15): 3705–3707.

Don, T. M.; Chen, C. W.; Chan, T. H. 2006. Preparation and characterization of poly (hydroxyalkanoate) from the fermentation of Haloferax mediterranei, Journal of Biomaterials Science 17(12): 1425–1438.

García, I.; López, J.; Dorado, M.; Kopsahelis, N.; Alexandri, M.; Papanikolaou, S. 2013. Evaluation of by-products from the biodiesel industry as fermentation feedstock for poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production by Cupriavidus necator, Bioresource Technology 130: 16–22.

Ghinea, C.; Gavrilescu, M. 2016. Costs analysis of municipal solid waste management scenarios: IASI – Romania case study, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 24(3): 185–199.

Heinrich, D.; Andreessen, B.; Madkour, M. H.; Al-Ghamdi, M. A.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Steinbüchel, A. 2013. From waste to plastic: synthesis of poly (3-hydroxypropionate) in Shimwellia blattae, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 79: 3582–3589.

Jiang, X. J.; Ramsay, B. A.; Ramsay, J. A. 2014. Recovery of Medium-Chain-Length Poly (3-Hydroxyalkanoates) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by NaOH Digestion, Environmental Engineering Science 31: 49–54.

Kahar, P.; Agus, J.; Kikkawa, Y.; Taguchi, K.; Doi, Y.; Tsuge, T. 2005. Effective production and kinetic characterization of ultra-high-molecular-weight poly [(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] in recombinant Escherichia coli, Polymer Degradation and Stability 87(1): 161–169.

Kahar, P.; Tsuge, T.; Taguchi, K.; Doi, Y. 2004. High yield production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from soybean oil by Ralstonia eutropha and its recombinant strain, Polymer Degradation and Stability 83(1): 79–86.

Kasemsap, C.; Wantawin, C. 2007. Batch production of polyhydroxyalkanoate by low-polyphosphate-content activated sludge at varying pH, Bioresource Technology 98(5): 1020–1027.

López-Abelairas, M.; García-Torreiro, M.; Lú-Chau, T.; Lema, J.; Steinbüchel, A. 2015. Comparison of several methods for the separation of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) from Cupriavidus necator H16 cultures, Biochemical Engineering Journal 93: 250–259.

Madkour, M. H.; Heinrich, D.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Steinbüchel, A. 2013. PHA recovery from biomass, Biomacromolecule 14: 2963–2972.

Martino, L.; Cruz, M. V.; Scoma, A.; Freitas, F.; Bertin, L.; Scandola, M. 2014. Recovery of amorphous polyhydroxybutyrate granules from Cupriavidus necator cells grown on used cooking oil, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 71: 117–123.

Ojumu, T.; Yu, J.; Solomon, B. 2004. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a bacterial biodegradable polymers, African Journal of Biotechnology 3(1): 18–24.

Punrattanasin, W. 2001. The utilization of activated sludge polyhydroxyalkanoates for the production of biodegradable plastics: Dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA.

Rai, R.; Keshavarz, T.; Roether, J.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Roy, I. 2011. Medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates, promising new biomedical materials for the future, Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 72: 29–47.

Ramsay, J. A.; Berger, E.; Voyer, R.; Chavarie, C.; Ramsay, B. A. 1994. Extraction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate using chlorinated solvents, Biotechnology Techniques 8: 589–594.

Satoh, H.; Ramey, W.; Koch, F.; Oldham, W.; Mino, T.; Matsuo, T. 1996. Anaerobic substrate uptake by the enhanced biological phosphorus removal activated sludge treating real sewage, Water Science and Technology 34(1–2): 9–16.

Urtuvia, V.; Villegas, P.; Gonzalez, M.; Seeger, M. 2014. Bacterial production of the biodegradable plastics polyhydroxyalkanoates, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 70: 208–213.