Influence of planting designs on winter thermal comfort in an urban park

    Nima Karimi Afshar Affiliation
    ; Zahra Karimian Affiliation
    ; Reza Doostan Affiliation
    ; Majid Habibi Nokhandan Affiliation


Various planting designs behave in different ways on microclimate and thermal comfort due to mainly distinct features of vegetation type and ratio. The papers simulated the microclimate behavior and thermal comfort of different planting design scenarios of an urban park using ENVI-met model. We measured temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity during the coldest period of 2016. Seven scenarios of planting design with different types and ratios of vegetation were simulated. In scenario of evergreen trees, humidity was relatively high while temperature and wind velocity were decreased. Simulated grass covered park and deciduous trees showed higher temperature and wind velocity. Scenario of grasses and the scenarios with high ratio of deciduous trees in comparison with other scenarios indicated lower wind speeds. The findings can be seen as a possibility of improvement of winter thermal comfort, considering a proper planting design as an important step in order to achieve Citizen Satisfaction.

Keyword : cold seasons, planting design, thermal comfort, urban landscape, vegetation

How to Cite
Karimi Afshar, N., Karimian, Z., Doostan, R., & Habibi Nokhandan, M. (2018). Influence of planting designs on winter thermal comfort in an urban park. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 26(3), 232-240.
Published in Issue
Oct 9, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Abreu-Harbich, L. V.; Labaki, L. C.; Matzarakis, A. 2015. Effect of tree planting design and tree species on human thermal comfort in the tropics, Landscape and Urban Planning 138: 99–109.

Akbari, H. 2002. Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants, Environmental Pollution 116: 119–126.

Ali-Toudert, F. 2005. Dependence of outdoor thermal comfort on street design in hot and dry climate: PhD thesis. University of Freiburg, Germany.

Ali-Toudert, F.; Mayer, H. 2006. Numerical study on the effects of aspect ratio and orientation of an urban street canyon on outdoor thermal comfort in hot and dry climate, Building and Environment 41(2): 94–108.

ASHRAE. 2001. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook 2001. (SI Edition). American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

Brown, R. D.; Gillespie, T. J. 1995. Microclimatic landscape design: creating thermal comfort and energy efficiency. New York, USA: Somerset, John Wiley & Sons.

Bruse, M. 2013. ENVI-met 3.1 BETA V [online]. Available from Internet:

Dimoudi, A.; Nikolopoulou, M. 2003. Vegetation in the urban environment: microclimatic analysis and benefits, Energy and Buildings 35: 69–76.

Fanger, P. O. 1972. Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. McGraw-Hill Companies, 244.

Ferrante, A.; Mihalakakou, G. 2001. The influence of water, green and selected passive techniques on the rehabitation of historical industrial buildings in urban areas, Solar Energy 70(3): 245–253.

Feyisa, G. L.; Dons, K.; Meilby, H. 2014. Efficiency of parks in mitigating urban heat island effect: an example from Addis Ababa, Landscape and Urban Planning 123: 87–95.

Jeong, D.; Park, K.; Song, B.; Kim, G.; Choi, C.; Moon, B. 2015. Validation of ENVI-met PMV values by in-situ measurements, in 9th International Conference on Urban Climate jointly with 12th Symposium on the Urban Environment, 20–24 July 2015, Toulouse, France.

Kotzen, B. 2003. An investigation of shade under six different tree species of the Negev desert towards their potential use for enhancing micro-climatic conditions in landscape architectural development, Journal of Arid Environments 55: 231–724.

Lalic, B.; Mihailovic, D. T. 2004. An empirical relation describing leaf area density inside the forest for environmental modeling, Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 43(4): 641–645.<0641:AERDLD>2.0.CO;2

McPherson, E. G. 1994. Energy-saving potential of trees in Chicago. Chicago’s urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago urban forest climate project. USDA forest service, General Technical Report NE, 186, 95-113.

Middel, A.; Häb, K.; Brazel, A. J.; Martin, C. A.; Guhathakurta, S. 2014. Impact of urban form and design on mid-afternoon microclimate in Phoenix Local Climate Zones, Landscape and Urban Planning 122: 16–28.

Ong, B. L. 2003. Green plot ratio: an ecological measure for architecture and urban planning, Landscape and Urban Planning 63(4): 197–211.

Ozkeresteci, I.; Crewe, K.; Brazel, A. J.; Bruse, M. 2003. Use and evaluation of the ENVI-met model for environmental design and planning: an experiment on linear parks, in Cartographic Renaissance, Proceedings of the 21 International Cartographic Conference (ICC), 2003, Durban, South Africa.

Pourkhabbaz, A.; Rastin, N.; Olbrich, A.; Langenfeld-Heyser, R.; Polle, A. 2010. Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L., The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 85: 251–255.

Rajabali, M. S. 2010. Color atlas of ornamental plants of Iran. Ir: Taraghi Press.

Ramesh, S. 2016. Energy efficient landscape for thermal comfort in buildings and built-up areas, International Journal of Engineering and Technology 8(5): 338–344.

Robinson, N. 2004. The planting design handbook. UK: Ashgate Press.

Salahi, B.; Nohegar, A.; Behrouzi, M. 2016. The modeling of precipitation and future droughts of mashhad plain using stochastic time series and standardized precipitation index (SPI), International Journal of Environmental Research 10(4): 625–636.

Schenk, H. J.; Jackson, R. B. 2002. Rooting depths, lateral root spreads and below ground/above-ground allometries of plants in water-limited ecosystems, Journal of Ecology 90(3): 480–494.

Shahidan, M. F.; Jones, P. J.; Gwilliam, J.; Salleh, E. 2012. An evaluation of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials, Building and Environment 58: 245–257.

Streiling, S.; Matzarakis, A. 2003. Influence of single and small clusters of trees on the bioclimate of a city: a case study, Journal of Arboriculture 29: 309–316.

Tarasoff, C. S.; Ball, D. A.; Mallory-Smith, C. A. 2007. Extreme ionic and temperature effects on germination of weeping alkaligrass (Puccinellia distans), Nuttall’s alkaligrass (Puccinellia nuttalliana) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), Weed Science 55: 305–310.

Thani, S. K. S. O.; Nik Mohammad, N. H.; Idilfitri, S. 2013. Amelioration of Urban temperature through landscape design approaching hot-humid climate: a review, Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies 4(13): 13–28.

Thoma, J. K.; Couttsa, A. M.; Broadbenta, A. M.; Tapper, N. J. 2016. The influence of increasing tree cover on mean radiant temperature across a mixed development suburb in Adelaide, Australia, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 20: 233–242.

Toy, S.; Yilmaz, S. 2010. Thermal sensation of people performing recreational activities in shadowy environment: a case study from Turkey, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 101: 329–343.

Wang, Y. 2016. The effect of urban green infrastructure on local microclimate and human thermal comfort: PhD Thesis. Wageningen University, Netherlands.

Wang, Y.; Bakker, F.; de Groot, R.; Wortche, H.; Leemans, R. 2015. Effects of urban trees on local outdoor microclimate: synthesizing field measurements by numerical modelling, Urban Ecosystems 18(4): 1305–1331.