Column study for the Cu(II) removal by the coconut shell from aqueous solution – MLR and GA modeling

    Shreyashi Sarkar Affiliation
    ; Nirjhar Bar Affiliation
    ; Sudip Kumar Das Affiliation


Adsorption characteristics of locally available inexpensive natural adsorbent coconut shells were studied for Cu(II) removal. The present study adsorption process was carried through a fixed bed column to find out the breakthrough characteristics. The variation of operating variables is investigated, pH 6, influence Cu(II) concentration (10–30 mg·L–1), bed height (5–15 cm), the flow rate (10–30 ml·min–1). The suitability of various kinetic models has been tested. Maximum adsorption capacity, qe according to Thomas model, was 30.09 mg·g–1obtained at 20 ml/min, flow rate, 30 mg·L–1 metal solution, and 15 cm bed height. The correlation coefficient of the Thomas model ranges from 0.8260 to 0.9839. Besides this, according to the statistical parameters of the Yoon-Nelson and Yan et al. models, proving that the experimental data are suitable for this model. The statistical and GA modeling of the experimental data has also been performed successfully.

Keyword : adsorption, Cu(II) removal, column operation, Multiple Linear Regression, Genetic Algorithm

How to Cite
Sarkar, S., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2022). Column study for the Cu(II) removal by the coconut shell from aqueous solution – MLR and GA modeling. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 30(2), 331-341.
Published in Issue
Jun 17, 2022
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Ahmad, R., Kumar, R., & Haseeb, S. (2012). Adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution onto iron oxide coated eggshell powder: Evaluation of equilibrium, isotherms, kinetics, and regeneration capacity. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 5(3), 353–359.

Arena, N., Lee, J., & Clift, R. (2016). Life Cycle Assessment of activated carbon production from coconut shells. Journal of Cleaner Production, 125, 68–77.

Banerjee, M., Basu, R. K., & Das, S. K. (2019a). Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) by pistachio shell: Isotherm study, kinetic modelling and scale-up designing – continuous mode. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 15, 100419.

Banerjee, M., Basu, R. K., & Das, S. K. (2019b). Cu(II) removal using green adsorbents: Kinetic modeling and plant scale-up design. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 11542–11557.

Barquilha, C. E. R., Cossich, E. S., Tavares, C. R. G., & Silva, E. A. (2017). Biosorption of nickel(II) and copper(II) ions in batch and fixed-bed columns by free and immobilized marine algae Sargassum sp. Journal of Cleaner Production, 150, 58–64.

Bohart, G. S., & Adams, E. Q. (1920). Some aspects of the behavior of charcoal with respect to chlorine. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 42, 523–544.

Bureau of Indian Standards. (2012). Indian standard drinking water – specification (IS 10500:2012, 2nd ed.).

Chen, J.-D., Yu, J.-X., Wang, F., Tang, J.-Q., Zhang, Y.-F., Xu, Y. L., & Chi, R.-A. (2017). Selective adsorption and recycle of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by modified sugarcane bagasse under dynamic condition. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(10), 9202–9209.

Das, A., Bar, M., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2019). Adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution: Kinetic, isotherm, thermodynamics, toxicity, scaleup design, and GA modelling. SN Applied Sciences, 1(7), 776.

Deepali. (2011). Bioremediation of chromium (VI) from textile industry’s effluent and contaminated soil using pseudomonas putida. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment, 2(1), 24–31.

Esposito, A., Pagnanelli, F., Lodi, A., Solisio, C., & Vegliò, F. (2001). Biosorption of heavy metals by Sphaerotilus natans: An equilibrium study at different pH and biomass concentrations. Hydrometallurgy, 60(2), 129–141.

Gallo-Cordova, A., Silva-Gordillo, M. del M., Muñoz, G. A., Arboleda-Faini, X., & Streitwieser, D. A. (2017). Comparison of the adsorption capacity of organic compounds present in produced water with commercially obtained walnut shell and residual biomass. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(4), 4041–4050.

Ghosh, K., Bar, N., Biswas, A. B., & Das, S. K. (2021). Elimination of crystal violet from synthetic medium by adsorption using unmodified and acid-modified eucalyptus leaves with MPR and GA application. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 19, 100370.

Hasfalina, C. M., Maryam, R. Z., Luqman, C. A., & Rashid, M. (2012). Adsorption of Copper (II) from aqueous medium in fixed-bed column by kenaf fibres. APCBEE Procedia, 3, 255–263.

Hutchins, R. A. (1973). New method simplifies design of activated-carbon system. Chemical Engineering, 80, 133–138.

Idan, I. J., Abdullah, L. C., Jamil, S. N. A. B. M., Obaid, M. K., & Choong, T. S. Y. (2017). Fixed-bed system for adsorption of anionic acid dyes from binary solute. BioResources, 12(4), 8870–8885.

Kapur, M., & Mondal, M. K. (2016). Design and model parameters estimation for fixed–bed column adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions using magnetized saw dust. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(26), 12192–12203.

Kuyucak, N., & Volesky, B. (1988). Biosorbents for recovery of metals from industrial solutions. Biotechnology Letters, 10, 137–142.

Liu, D., & Sun, D. (2012). Modeling adsorption of Cu(II) using polyaniline-coated sawdust in a fixed-bed column. Environmental Engineering Science, 29(6), 461–465.

Maheshwari, U., & Gupta, S. (2016). Removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater using activated neem bark in a fixed-bed column: Interference of other ions and kinetic modelling studies. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(18), 8514–8525.

Mandal, A., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2020). Phenol removal from wastewater using low-cost natural bioadsorbent neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves: Adsorption study and MLR modelling. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy, 17, 100308.

Mitra, T., & Das, S. K. (2020). Removal of Cu(II) ions using bio-adsorbents in fixed–Bed continuous bed mode–A comparative study and scale-up design. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 39(5), e013417.

Mitra, T., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2019). Rice husk: Green adsorbent for Pb(II) and Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution–column study and GA–NN modelling. SN Applied Sciences, 1(5), 486.

Mitra, T., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2021). Biosorption of Cu(II) ions from industrial effluents by rice husk: Experiment, statistical and ANN modelling. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 29(4), 441–448.

Nag, S., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2019). Sustainable bioremadiation of Cd(II) in fixed bed column using green adsorbents: Application of Kinetic models and GA-ANN technique. Environmental Technology & Innovation, 13, 130–145.

Nag, S., Bar, N., & Das, S. K. (2020). Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution using green adsorbents in continuous bed column – statistical and GA-ANN hybrid modelling. Chemical Engineering Science, 226, 115904.

Ngah, W. S. W., & Hanafiah, M. A. K. M. (2008). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: A review. Bioresource Technology, 99(10), 3935–3948.

Nwabanne, J. T., & Igbokwa, P. K. (2012). Adsorption performance of packed bed column for the removal of lead (II) using oil palm fibre. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(5), 106–115.

Pino, G. H. (2005). Biosorption of heavy metals using powder of green coconut shell [Master’s Degree dissertation]. Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (in Portuguese).

Pino, G. H., Mesquita, L. M. S. de, Torem, M. L., & Pinto, G. A. S. (2006). Biosorption of heavy metals by powder of green coconut shell. Separation Science and Technology, 41(14), 3141–3153.

Sarkar, S., & Das, S. K. (2016a). Removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by rice husk ash—column studies. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57(43), 20340–20349.

Sarkar, S., & Das, S. K. (2016b). Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using natural adsorbents - column studies. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 5(11), 370–377.

Senthil, P. K., Deepthi, A. S. L. S., Bharani, R., & Rakkesh, G. (2015). Study of adsorption of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by surface-modified Eucalyptus globulus seeds in a fixed-bed column: Experimental optimization and mathematical modelling. Research on Chemical Intermediates, 41(11), 8681–8698.

Shahbazi, A., Younesi, H., & Badiei, A. (2013). Batch and fixed-bed column adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution onto functionalised SBA-15 mesoporous silica. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 91(4), 739–750.

Singha, B., & Das, S. K. (2011). Biosorption of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions: Kinetics, equilibrium, thermodynamics and desorption studies. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 84(1), 221–232.

Singha, B., & Das, S. K. (2013). Adsorptive removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using natural/agricultural wastes. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 107, 97–106.

Sivaprakash, B., Rajamohan, N., & Mohamed Sadhik, A. (2010). Batch and column sorption of heavy metal from aqueous solution using a marine alga Sargassum Tenerrimumint. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 2(1), 155–162.

Thomas, H. C. (1944). Heterogeneous ion exchange in a flowing system. Journal of American Chemical Society, 66, 1664–1666.

Wang, F., Yu, J., Zhang, Z., Xu, Y., & Chi, R. (2018). An amino-functionalized ramie stalk-based adsorbent for highly effective Cu2+ removal from water: Adsorption performance and mechanism. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 117, 511–522.

Wolborska, A. (1989). Adsorption on activated carbon of p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution. Water Research, 23(1), 85–91.

Xavier, A. L. P., Adarme, O. F. H., Furtado, L. M., Ferreira, G. M. D., Silva, L. H. M., Gil, L. F., & Gurgel, L. V. A. (2018). Modeling adsorption of copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) metal ions from aqueous solution onto a new carboxylated sugarcane bagasse. Part II: Optimization of monocomponent fixed-bed column adsorption. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 516, 431–445.

Yahaya, N. K. E. M., Abustan, I., Latiff, M. F. P. M., Bello, O. S., & Ahmad, M. A. (2011). Fixed-bed column study for Cu (II) removal from aqueous solutions using rice husk based activated carbon. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 11, 186–190.

Yan, G., Viraraghavan, T., & Chem, M. (2001). A new model for heavy metal removal in a biosorption column. Adsorption Science & Technology, 19(1), 25–43.

Yoon, Y. H., & Nelson, J. H. (1984). Application of gas adsorption kinetics I. A theoretical model for respirator cartridge service life. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 45(8), 509–516.