Sharing mobility solutions in remote touristic area: case study of Lithuania

    Rasa Ušpalytė-Vitkūnienė Affiliation
    ; Gintautas Bureika Affiliation
    ; Marija Burinskienė Affiliation
    ; Vaida Vabuolytė Affiliation
    ; Viktor Skrickij Affiliation


Sharing mobility solutions changes people’s lives in cities; however, such services are not common in remote areas, where the most widespread transport mode is a privately owned car. The main challenge is that the existing transport system fails to meet the population’s daily travel needs in such regions. Sharing mobility covers environmental issues, infrastructure development, digitalisation, integration of different transport modes, and people behaviour changes. This study analyses the possibility of expanding the existing urban mobility sharing system in remote tourist areas of Lithuania; for this purpose, a small resort in the central part of Lithuania – Birštonas was selected, and a survey of residents and tourists (visitors) was conducted. Using the survey results of residents and tourists, the needs for Car Sharing (CS) and micro-mobility services are determined. The attitude of municipality, residents, tourists, service providers towards micro mobility and vehicle sharing services is determined. Based on the achieved results, further steps of service development are proposed. The article’s main aim is to evaluate the views of various stakeholders on the development of micro mobility and CS systems in remote areas and propose development solutions.

Keyword : car sharing, bike sharing, sharing economy, mobility, rural areas, survey, questionnaires

How to Cite
Ušpalytė-Vitkūnienė, R., Bureika, G., Burinskienė, M., Vabuolytė, V., & Skrickij, V. (2022). Sharing mobility solutions in remote touristic area: case study of Lithuania. Transport, 37(4), 241–250.
Published in Issue
Nov 17, 2022
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Abenoza, R. F.; Cats, O.; Susilo, Y. O. 2019. How does travel satisfaction sum up? An exploratory analysis in decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips, Transportation 46(5): 1615–1642.

Brandstätter, G.; Kahr, M.; Leitner, M. 2017. Determining optimal locations for charging stations of electric car-sharing systems under stochastic demand, Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 104: 17–35.

BSA. 2017. Darnaus judumo Birštono mieste planas. Birštono savivaldybės administracija (BSA), Lietuva. Available from Internet:

Burinskienė, M.; Ušpalytė-Vitkūnienė, R.; Vabuolytė, V. 2020. Eismo srautų kontrolės ir automobilių statymo vietų Birštono mieste organizavimo planas-studija. Darbo Nr. Nr. (11.18)-IS-091/20766 ataskaita. Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, Vilnius, Lietuva. 64 p. Available from Internet: (in Lithuanian).

Clark, M.; Gifford, K.; Anable, J.; Le Vine, S. 2015. Business-to-business carsharing: evidence from Britain of factors associated with employer-based carsharing membership and its impacts, Transportation 42(3): 471–495.

CRS. 2021. Sample Size Calculator. Creative Research Systems (CRS). Available from Internet:

Curtale, R.; Liao, F.; Van der Waerden, P. 2021a. Understanding travel preferences for user-based relocation strategies of one-way electric car-sharing services, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 127: 103135.

Curtale, R.; Liao, F.; Van der Waerden, P. 2021b. User acceptance of electric car-sharing services: the case of the Netherlands, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 149: 266–282.

EC. 2019. Country Report Lithuania 2019. SWD(2019) 1014 Final. 27 February 2019, European Commission (EC). 66 p. Available from Internet:

Giordano, D.; Vassio, L.; Cagliero, L. 2021. A multi-faceted characterization of free-floating car sharing service usage, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies 125: 102966.

Haustein, S. 2021. What role does free-floating car sharing play for changes in car ownership? Evidence from longitudinal survey data and population segments in Copenhagen, Travel Behaviour and Society 24: 181–194.

Hsieh, F.-S. 2020. A comparative study of several metaheuristic algorithms to optimize monetary incentive in ridesharing systems, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 9(10): 590.

Illgen, S.; Höck, M. 2020. Establishing car sharing services in rural areas: a simulation-based fleet operations analysis, Transportation 47(2): 811–826.

KPMG International. 2012. KPMG’s Global Automotive Executive Survey 2012. 62 p. Available from Internet:

Le Vine, S.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Sivakumar, A.; Polak, J. 2014. A new approach to predict the market and impacts of round-trip and point-to-point carsharing systems: case study of London, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 32: 218–229.

LR AM. 2016. Lietuvos Respublikos teritorijos bendrasis planas. Lietuvos Respublikos aplinkos ministerija (LR AM), Vilnius, Lietuva. Available from Internet: (in Lithuanian).

MARA. 2019. Study the Possibility of Extending Existing Car Sharing Solutions to Touristic Remote Areas Birštonas City and Druskininkai City. Mobility and Accessibility in Rural Areas (MARA) – European Project Funded by the INTERREG Baltic Sea Region programme. Available from Internet:

MI RL. 2017. Lithuanian Regional Policy White Paper for Harmonious and Sustainable Development 2017–2030. Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Lithuania (MI RL) 34 p. Available from Internet:

Mont, O.; Palgan, Y. V.; Bradley, K.; Zvolska, L. 2020. A decade of the sharing economy: concepts, users, business and governance perspectives, Journal of Cleaner Production 269: 122215.

Movmi. 2018. Understanding the Car Sharing Business Model and How to Build Yours. Movmi Community. Available from Internet:

Münzel, K.; Boon, W.; Frenken, K.; Vaskelainen, T. 2018. Carsharing business models in Germany: characteristics, success and future prospects, Information Systems and e-Business Management 16(2): 271–291.

Novikova, O. 2017. The sharing economy and the future of personal mobility: new models based on car sharing, Technology Innovation Management Review 7(8): 27–31.

Perschl, M.; Posch, A. 2016. Carsharing – ein Mobilitätsansatz auch für den ländlichen Raum?, Lernweltforschung 18: 243–268. (in German).

Rotaris, L.; Danielis, R. 2018. The role for carsharing in medium to small-sized towns and in less-densely populated rural areas, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 115: 49–62.

Seemann, A. K.; Knoechel, S. 2017. Carsharing in rural areas. Challenges and potentials for managing public transportation at local government level, Internationales Verkehrswesen 69(1): 50–53.

Shaheen, S.; Cohen, A.; Chan, N.; Bansal, A. 2020. Sharing strategies: carsharing, shared micromobility (bikesharing and scooter sharing), transportation network companies, microtransit, and other innovative mobility modes, in E. Deakin (Ed.). Transportation, Land Use, and Environmental Planning, 237–262.

Sopjani, L.; Stier, J. J.; Hesselgren, M.; Ritzén, S. 2020. Shared mobility services versus private car: Implications of changes in everyday life, Journal of Cleaner Production 259: 120845.

Stathopoulos, A.; Sener, I. N. 2017. Transforming mobility systems with sharing and automation, Transportation 44(6): 1255–1259.

Statistics Lithuania. 2020. Official Statistics Portal. Lithuania. 2020. Available from Internet:

Stauskis, G.; Burinskienė, M.; Ušpalytė-Vitkūnienė, R. 2017. Inovatyvaus automobilių dalinimosi paslaugos valdymo sprendimo sukūrimas. Projekto Nr. J05-LVPA-K-01-0187 ataskaita. UAB „CityBee Solutions“, Vilnius. (in Lithuanian).

Tart, S.; Wells, P.; Beccaria, S.; Sanvicente, E. 2018. Analysis of Business Models for Car Sharing. Deliverable D3.1. Project “Shared Mobility Opportunities and Challenges for European Cities (STARS)” under H2020 Programme Grant Agreement No 769513. 77 p. Available from Internet: