A review of multi-criteria decision-making methods for building assessment, selection, and retrofit

    Paola Villalba Affiliation
    ; Antonio J. Sánchez-Garrido Affiliation
    ; Víctor Yepes Affiliation


Multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) has experienced significant growth in recent years, owing to its capacity to integrate even contradictory criteria. This study conducted a comprehensive literature review of MCDM for assessing, selecting, and retrofitting buildings. The bibliometric search used a search algorithm in specialized databases. A filtering and expansion process was done by reviewing references, and 91 relevant articles were selected. The analysis revealed that in a group of studies, socioeconomic criteria were used to assess the vulnerability of buildings. On the other hand, some research integrated the three dimensions of sustainability (economic, social, and environmental) along with safety considerations when identifying optimal retrofit alternatives. Classic MCDMs are prevalent in research within this field. Among the most used methods, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed for criteria weighting, Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) for constructing vulnerability indices, and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) for building retrofitting. This literature review contributes to the path toward a holistic renovation of the existing building stock, providing recommendations for future research to improve decision-making solutions for integrating the safety and sustainability of existing buildings.

Keyword : decision making, MCDM, multi-criteria, retrofit, structural assessment, sustainability, vulnerability

How to Cite
Villalba, P., Sánchez-Garrido, A. J., & Yepes, V. (2024). A review of multi-criteria decision-making methods for building assessment, selection, and retrofit. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 30(5), 465–480.
Published in Issue
Jun 5, 2024
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Abdrabo, K. I., Kantoush, S. A., Esmaiel, A., Saber, M., Sumi, T., Almamari, M., Elboshy, B., & Ghoniem, S. (2023). An integrated indicator-based approach for constructing an urban flood vulnerability index as an urban decision-making tool using the PCA and AHP techniques: A case study of Alexandria, Egypt. Urban Climate, 48, Article 101426.

Ahmed, R., Nasiri, F., & Zayed, T. (2021). A novel Neutrosophic-based machine learning approach for maintenance prioritization in healthcare facilities. Journal of Building Engineering, 42, Article 102480.

Alam, M. S., & Haque, S. M. (2020). Seismic vulnerability evaluation of educational buildings of Mymensingh city, Bangladesh using rapid visual screening and index based approach. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 11(3), 379–402.

Alam, M. S., & Haque, S. M. (2022). Multi-dimensional earthquake vulnerability assessment of residential neighborhoods of Mymensingh City, Bangladesh: A spatial multi-criteria analysis based approach. Journal of Urban Management, 11(1), 37–58.

Alam, N., Alam, M. S., & Tesfamariam, S. (2012). Buildings’ seismic vulnerability assessment methods: a comparative study. Natural Hazards, 62(2), 405–424.

Aliabadi, S. F., Sarsangi, A., & Modiri, E. (2015). The social and physical vulnerability assessment of old texture against earthquake (case study: Fahadan district in Yazd City). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(12), 10775–10787.

Alizadeh, M., Hashim, M., Alizadeh, E., Shahabi, H., Karami, M. R., Pour, A. B., Pradhan, B., & Zabihi, H. (2018a). Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) model for seismic vulnerability assessment (SVA) of urban residential buildings. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7(11), Article 444.

Alizadeh, M., Ngah, I., Hashim, M., Pradhan, B., & Pour, A. B. (2018b). A Hybrid Analytic Network Process and Artificial Neural Network (ANP-ANN) model for urban earthquake vulnerability assessment. Remote Sensing, 10(6), Article 975.

Andreolli, F., Bragolusi, P., D’Alpaos, C., Faleschini, F., & Zanini, M. A. (2022). An AHP model for multiple-criteria prioritization of seismic retrofit solutions in gravity-designed industrial buildings. Journal of Building Engineering, 45, Article 103493.

Anelli, A., Santa-Cruz, S., Vona, M., Tarque, N., & Laterza, M. (2019). A proactive and resilient seismic risk mitigation strategy for existing school buildings. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 15(2), 137–151.

Anelli, A., Vona, M., & Hidalgo, S. S.-C. (2020). Comparison of different intervention options for massive seismic upgrading of essential facilities. Buildings, 10(7), Article 125.

Anwar, G. A., Dong, Y., & Li, Y. (2020). Performance-based decision-making of buildings under seismic hazard considering long-term loss, sustainability, and resilience. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 17(4), 454–470.

Anwar, G. A., Hussain, M., Akber, M. Z., Khan, M. A., & Khan, A. A. (2023). Sustainability-oriented optimization and decision making of community buildings under seismic hazard. Sustainability, 15(5), Article 4385.

Bahadori, H., Hasheminezhad, A., & Karimi, A. (2017). Development of an integrated model for seismic vulnerability assessment of residential buildings: Application to Mahabad City, Iran. Journal of Building Engineering, 12, 118–131.

Banica, A., Rosu, L., Muntele, I., & Grozavu, A. (2017). Towards urban resilience: A multi-criteria analysis of seismic vulnerability in Iasi City (Romania). Sustainability, 9(2), Article 270.

Biondini, F., & Frangopol, D. M. (2016). Life-cycle performance of deteriorating structural systems under uncertainty: Review. Journal of Structural Engineering, 142(9), Article F4016001.

Briz, E., Garmendia, L., Marcos, I., & Gandini, A. (2023). Improving the resilience of historic areas coping with natural and climate change hazards: Interventions based on multi-criteria methodology. International Journal of Architectural Heritage.

Carofilis, W. W., Clemett, N., Gabbianelli, G., O’Reilly, G., & Monteiro, R. (2021). Selection of optimal seismic retrofitting for existing school buildings through multi-criteria decision making. In Eccomas Proceedia COMPDYN (pp. 1223–1241).

Caruso, M., Couto, R., Pinho, R., & Monteiro, R. (2023). Decision-making approaches for optimal seismic/energy integrated retrofitting of existing buildings. Frontiers in Built Environment, 9.

Caterino, N., & Cosenza, E. (2018a). A multi-criteria approach for selecting the seismic retrofit intervention for an existing structure accounting for expected losses and tax incentives in Italy. Engineering Structures, 174, 840–850.

Caterino, N., & Cosenza, E. (2018b). A multi-criteria approach for selecting the seismic retrofit intervention for an existing structure accounting for expected losses and tax incentives in Italy. Engineering Structures, 174, 840–850.

Caterino, N., Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G., & Cosenza, E. (2008). Multi-criteria decision making for seismic retrofitting of RC structures. Journal of Earthquake Engineering, 12(4), 555–583.

Caterino, N., Iervolino, I., Manfredi, G., & Cosenza, E. (2009). Comparative analysis of multi-criteria decision-making methods for seismic structural retrofitting. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 24(6), 432–445.

Caterino, N., Nuzzo, I., Ianniello, A., Varchetta, G., & Cosenza, E. (2021). A BIM-based decision-making framework for optimal seismic retrofit of existing buildings. Engineering Structures, 242, Article 112544.

Choi, J., & Choi, J. (2022). Technical feasibility study model of aged apartment renovation applying Analytic Hierarchy Process. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 28(1), 39–50.

Chu, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, A., & Yu, H. (2021). A hybrid intelligent model for urban seismic risk assessment from the perspective of possibility and vulnerability based on Particle Swarm Optimization. Scientific Programming, 2021, Article 2218044.

Clemett, N., Gallo, W. W. C., O’Reilly, G. J., Gabbianelli, G., & Monteiro, R. (2022). Optimal seismic retrofitting of existing buildings considering environmental impact. Engineering Structures, 250, Article 113391.

Clemett, N., Carofilis Gallo, W. W., Gabbianelli, G., O’Reilly, G. J., & Monteiro, R. (2023). Optimal combined seismic and energy efficiency retrofitting for existing buildings in Italy. Journal of Structural Engineering, 149(1), Article 04022207.

Dall’Osso, F., Gonella, M., Gabbianelli, G., Withycombe, G., & Dominey-Howes, D. (2009). A revised (PTVA) model for assessing the vulnerability of buildings to tsunami damage. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9(5), 1557–1565.

D’Alpaos, C., & Valluzzi, M. R. (2020). Protection of cultural heritage buildings and artistic assets from seismic hazard: A hierarchical approach. Sustainability, 12(4), Article 1608.

de Brito, M. M., & Evers, M. (2016). Multi-criteria decision-making for flood risk management: a survey of the current state of the art. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16(4), 1019–1033.

Es-haghi, M. S., Barkhordari, M. S., Huang, Z., & Ye, J. (2022). Multicriteria decision-making methods in selecting seismic upgrading strategy of high-rise RC wall buildings. Journal of Structural Engineering, 148(4), Article 04022015.

Fallahpour, A., Wong, K. Y., Rajoo, S., Olugu, E. U., Nilashi, M., & Turskis, Z. (2020). A fuzzy decision support system for sustainable construction project selection: an integrated FPP-FIS model. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 26(3), 247–258.

Fayaz, M., Romshoo, S. A., Rashid, I., & Chandra, R. (2023). Earthquake vulnerability assessment of the built environment in the city of Srinagar, Kashmir Himalaya, using a geographic information system. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 23(4), 1593–1611.

Fiore, P., Donnarumma, G., Falce, C., D’Andria, E., & Sicignano, C. (2020a). An AHP-based methodology for decision support in integrated interventions in school buildings. Sustainability, 12(23), Article 10181.

Fiore, P., Sicignano, E., & Donnarumma, G. (2020b). An AHP-based Methodology for the evaluation and choice of integrated interventions on historic buildings. Sustainability, 12(14), Article 5795.

Formisano, A., & Mazzolani, F. M. (2015). On the selection by MCDM methods of the optimal system for seismic retrofitting and vertical addition of existing buildings. Computers & Structures, 159, 1–13.

Formisano, A., Castaldo, C., & Chiumiento, G. (2017). Optimal seismic upgrading of a reinforced concrete school building with metal-based devices using an efficient multi-criteria decision-making method. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 13(11), 1373–1389.

Gacu, J. G., Monjardin, C. E. F., de Jesus, K. L. M., & Senoro, D. B. (2023). GIS-based Risk assessment of structure attributes in flood zones of Odiongan, Romblon, Philippines. Buildings, 13(2), Article 506.

Gallo, W. W. C., Clemett, N., Gabbianelli, G., O’Reilly, G., & Monteiro, R. (2022). Seismic resilience assessment in optimally integrated retrofitting of existing school buildings in Italy. Buildings, 12(6), Article 845.

Gandini, A., Garmendia, L., Prieto, I., Alvarez, I., & San-Jose, J.-T. (2020). A holistic and multi-stakeholder methodology for vulnerability assessment of cities to flooding and extreme precipitation events. Sustainable Cities and Society, 63, Article 102437.

Gentile, R., & Galasso, C. (2021). Simplified seismic loss assessment for optimal structural retrofit of RC buildings. Earthquake Spectra, 37(1), 346–365.

Gentile, R., Galasso, C., Idris, Y., Rusydy, I., & Meilianda, E. (2019). From rapid visual survey to multi-hazard risk prioritisation and numerical fragility of school buildings. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 19(7), 1365–1386.

Ghajari, Y. E., Alesheikh, A. A., Modiri, M., Hosnavi, R., & Abbasi, M. (2017). Spatial modelling of urban physical vulnerability to explosion hazards using GIS and fuzzy MCDA. Sustainability, 9(7), Article 1274.

Golcuk, I., & Baykasoglu, A. (2016). An analysis of DEMATEL approaches for criteria interaction handling within ANP. Expert Systems with Applications, 46, 346–366.

Guo, X., & Kapucu, N. (2020). Assessing social vulnerability to earthquake disaster using rough analytic hierarchy process method: A case study of Hanzhong City, China. Safety Science, 125, Article 104625.

Hajkowicz, S., & Collins, K. (2007). A review of multiple criteria analysis for water resource planning and management. Water Resources Management, 21(9), 1553–1566.

Hamdia, K. M., Arafa, M., & Alqedra, M. (2018). Structural damage assessment criteria for reinforced concrete buildings by using a Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy process. Underground Space, 3(3), 243–249.

Harirchian, E., Jadhav, K., Mohammad, K., Aghakouchaki Hosseini, S. E., & Lahmer, T. (2020). A comparative study of MCDM methods integrated with rapid visual seismic vulnerability assessment of existing RC structures. Applied Sciences, 10(18), Article 6411.

Hoang, T., Noy, I., Filippova, O., & Elwood, K. (2021). Prioritising earthquake retrofitting in Wellington, New Zealand. Disasters, 45(4), 968–995.

Jamal-ud-din, Ainuddin, S., Murtaza, G., Faiz, S., Muhammad, A. S., Raheem, A., & Khan, S. (2023). Earthquake vulnerability assessment through spatial multi-criteria analysis: a case study of Quetta city, Pakistan. Environmental Earth Sciences, 82(11), Article 262.

Jena, R., & Pradhan, B. (2020). Integrated ANN-cross-validation and AHP-TOPSIS model to improve earthquake risk assessment. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50, Article 101723.

Jena, R., Pradhan, B., & Beydoun, G. (2020). Earthquake vulnerability assessment in Northern Sumatra province by using a multi-criteria decision-making model. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 46, Article 101518.

Juliá, P. B., Stellacci, S., & Poletti, E. (2024). Evaluation of retrofitting techniques for historical adobe constructions using a multi-criteria decision analysis: The case study of Chile. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 18(1), 40–63.

Keshavarz Ghorabaee, M., Zavadskas, E. K., Olfat, L., & Turskis, Z. (2015). Multi-criteria inventory classification using a new method of evaluation based on Distance from Average Solution (EDAS). Informatica, 26(3), 435–451.

Keshavarz Ghorabaee, M., Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z., & Antucheviciene, J. (2016). A new combinative distance-based assessment (CODAS) method for multi-criteria decision-making. Economic Computation and Economic Cybernetics Studies and Research, 50(3), 25–44.

Krstic, M., Agnusdei, G. P., Miglietta, P. P., Tadic, S., & Roso, V. (2022). Applicability of Industry 4.0 technologies in the reverse logistics: A circular economy approach based on COmprehensive Distance Based RAnking (COBRA) method. Sustainability, 14(9), Article 5632.

Lallam, M., Djebli, A., & Mammeri, A. (2023). Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for assessing damage in old masonry buildings: A case study. International Journal of Architectural Heritage.

Lee, S., Panahi, M., Pourghasemi, H. R., Shahabi, H., Alizadeh, M., Shirzadi, A., Khosravi, K., Melesse, A. M., Yekrangnia, M., Rezaie, F., Moeini, H., Pham, B. T., & Bin Ahmad, B. (2019). SEVUCAS: A novel GIS-based machine learning software for seismic vulnerability assessment. Applied Sciences, 9(17), Article 3495.

Macieira, M., Mendonca, P., Guedes, J. M., & Tereso, A. (2022). Evaluating the efficiency of membrane’s refurbishment solutions to perform vertical extensions in old buildings using a multicriteria decision-support model. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 18(1), 1–25.

Makoond, N., Pela, L., & Molins, C. (2021). A risk index for the structural diagnosis of masonry heritage (RISDiMaH). Construction and Building Materials, 284, Article 122433.

Maqsoom, A., Aslam, B., Awais, M., Hassan Usman and Alaloul, W. S., Musarat, M. A., & Qureshi, M. I. (2021). Efficiency of multiple hybrid techniques for the earthquake physical susceptibility mapping: the case of Abbottabad District, Pakistan. Environmental Earth Sciences, 80, Article 678.

Maqsoom, A., Aslam, B., Khalil, U., Mehmood, M. A., Ashraf, H., & Siddique, A. (2024). An integrated approach based earthquake risk assessment of a seismically active and rapidly urbanizing area in Northern Pakistan. Geocarto International, 37(27), 16043–16073.

Marcher, C., Giusti, A., & Matt, D. T. (2020). Decision support in building construction: A systematic review of methods and application areas. Buildings, 10(10), Article 170.

Martínez-Muñoz, D., Martí, J. V, & Yepes, V. (2022). Social impact assessment comparison of composite and concrete bridge alternatives. Sustainability, 14(9), Article 5186.

Menna, C., Felicioni, L., Negro, P., Lupisek, A., Romano, E., Prota, A., & Hajek, P. (2022). Review of methods for the combined assessment of seismic resilience and energy efficiency towards sustainable retrofitting of existing European buildings. Sustainable Cities and Society, 77, Article 103556.

Mili, R. R., Hosseini, K. A., & Izadkhah, Y. O. (2018). Developing a holistic model for earthquake risk assessment and disaster management interventions in urban fabrics. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 27, 355–365.

Mladineo, N., Mladineo, M., Benvenuti, E., Kekez, T., & Nikolic, Z. (2022). Methodology for the assessment of multi-hazard risk in urban homogenous zones. Applied Sciences, 12(24), Article 12843.

Moradi, M., Delavar, M. R., & Moshiri, B. (2015). A GIS-based multi-criteria decision-making approach for seismic vulnerability assessment using quantifier-guided OWA operator: a case study of Tehran, Iran. Annals of GIS, 21(3), 209–222.

Mourato, S., Fernandez, P., Pereira, L. G., & Moreira, M. (2023). Assessing vulnerability in flood prone areas using Analytic Hierarchy Process-Group decision making and geographic information system: A case study in Portugal. Applied Sciences, 13(8), Article 4915.

Murray, P. B., Feliciano, D., Goldwyn, B. H., Liel, A. B., Arroyo, O., & Javernick-Will, A. (2023). Seismic safety of informally constructed reinforced concrete houses in Puerto Rico. Earthquake Spectra, 39(1), 5–33.

Nadkarni, R. R., & Puthuvayi, B. (2020). A comprehensive literature review of multi-criteria decision making methods in heritage buildings. Journal of Building Engineering, 32, Article 101814.

Narjabadifam, P., Hoseinpour, R., Noori, M., & Altabey, W. (2021). Practical seismic resilience evaluation and crisis management planning through GIS-based vulnerability assessment of buildings. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, 20(1), 25–37.

Navarro, I. J., Yepes, V., & Martí, J. V. (2018). Social life cycle assessment of concrete bridge decks exposed to aggressive environments. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 72, 50–63.

Navarro, I. J., Yepes, V., & Martí, J. V. (2019). A review of multicriteria assessment techniques applied to sustainable infrastructure design. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2019, Article 6134803.

Navarro, I. J., Yepes, V., & Martí V, J. (2020a). Sustainability assessment of concrete bridge deck designs in coastal environments using neutrosophic criteria weights. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 16(7), 949–967.

Navarro, I. J., Penadés-Plà, V., Martínez-Muñoz, D., Rempling, R., & Yepes, V. (2020b). Life cycle sustainability assessment for multi-criteria decision making in bridge design: a review. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 26(7), 690–704.

Nazmfar, H. (2019). An integrated approach of the analytic network process and fuzzy model mapping of evaluation of urban vulnerability against earthquake. Geomatics Natural Hazards & Risk, 10(1), 1512–1528.

Nazmfar, H., Saredeh, A., Eshgi, A., & Feizizadeh, B. (2019). Vulnerability evaluation of urban buildings to various earthquake intensities: a case study of the municipal zone 9 of Tehran. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 25(1–2, SI), 455–474.

Nguyen, M. V. (2023). Drivers of innovation towards sustainable construction: A study in a developing country. Journal of Building Engineering, 80, Article 107970.

Nuno Martins, V., e Silva, D., & Cabral, P. (2012). Social vulnerability assessment to seismic risk using multicriteria analysis: the case study of Vila Franca do Campo (So Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal). Natural Hazards, 62(2), 385–404.

Palermo, V., Tsionis, G., & Sousa, M. L. (2018). Building stock inventory to assess seismic vulnerability across Europe. Publications Office of the European Union.

Panahi, M., Rezaie, F., & Meshkani, S. A. (2014). Seismic vulnerability assessment of school buildings in Tehran city based on AHP and GIS. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 14(4), 969–979.

Papathoma-Koehle, M., Cristofari, G., Wenk, M., & Fuchs, S. (2019). The importance of indicator weights for vulnerability indices and implications for decision making in disaster management. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 36, Article 101103.

Pashaei, R., & Moghadam, A. S. (2018). Fuzzy AHP method for selection of a suitable seismic retrofitting alternative in low-rise buildings. Civil Engineering Journal-Tehran, 4(5), 1074–1086.

Passoni, C., Caruso, M., Marini, A., Pinho, R., & Landolfo, R. (2022). The role of life cycle structural engineering in the transition towards a sustainable building renovation: Available tools and research needs. Buildings, 12(8), Article 1107.

Penadés-Plà, V., García-Segura, T., Martí, J. V, & Yepes, V. (2016). A review of multi-criteria decision-making methods applied to the sustainable bridge design. Sustainability, 8(12), Article 1295.

Pinero, I., San-Jose, J. T., Rodriguez, P., & Losanez, M. M. (2017). Multi-criteria decision-making for grading the rehabilitation of heritage sites. Application in the historic center of La Habana. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 26, 144–152.

Pohoryles, D. A., Bournas, D. A., Da Porto, F., Caprino, A., Santarsiero, G., & Triantafillou, T. (2022). Integrated seismic and energy retrofitting of existing buildings: A state-of-the-art review. Journal of Building Engineering, 61, Article 105274.

Pons, J. J., Penadés-Plà, V., Yepes, V., & Martí, J. V. (2018). Life cycle assessment of earth-retaining walls: An environmental comparison. Journal of Cleaner Production, 192, 411–420.

Pour, M. T. (2015). Prioritization of methods for seismic retrofitting of structures. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10(SI), 64–80.

Ranjbar, H. R., & Nekooie, M. A. (2018). An improved hierarchical fuzzy TOPSIS approach to identify endangered earthquake-induced buildings. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 76, 21–39.

Requena-Garcia-Cruz, M. V, Morales-Esteban, A., & Durand-Neyra, P. (2022). Assessment of specific structural and ground-improvement seismic retrofitting techniques for a case study RC building by means of a multi-criteria evaluation. Structures, 38, 265–278.

Rezaei, J. (2015). Best-worst multi-criteria decision-making method. Omega, 53, 49–57.

Rezaie, F., & Panahi, M. (2015). GIS modeling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran using multi-criteria decision-making techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 15(3), 461–474.

Sadrykia, M., Delavar, M. R., & Zare, M. (2017). A GIS-based fuzzy decision making model for seismic vulnerability assessment in areas with incomplete data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(4), Article 119.

Sánchez-Garrido, A. J., & Yepes, V. (2020). Multi-criteria assessment of alternative sustainable structures for a self-promoted, single-family home. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, Article 120556.

Sánchez-Garrido, A. J., Navarro, I. J., & Yepes, V. (2021). Neutrosophic multi-criteria evaluation of sustainable alternatives for the structure of single-family homes. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 89, Article 106572.

Sánchez-Garrido, A. J., Navarro, I. J., & Yepes, V. (2022). Multi-criteria decision-making applied to the sustainability of building structures based on modern methods of construction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 330, Article 129724.

Sangiorgio, V., Uva, G., & Fatiguso, F. (2018a). Optimized AHP to overcome limits in weight calculation: Building performance application. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 144(2), Article 04017101.

Sangiorgio, V., Uva, G., & Fatiguso, F. (2018b). User reporting-based semeiotic assessment of existing building stock at the regional scale. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 32(6), Article 04018079.

Sangiorgio, V., Martiradonna, S., Fatiguso, F., & Uva, G. (2020a). AHP-based methodology integrating modern information technologies for historical masonry churches diagnosis. Archeologia e Calcolatori, 31(2), 257–268.

Sangiorgio, V., Uva, G., & Aiello, M. A. (2020b). A multi-criteria-based procedure for the robust definition of algorithms aimed at fast seismic risk assessment of existing RC buildings. Structures, 24, 766–782.

Sangiorgio, V., Uva, G., & Adam, J. M. (2021). Integrated seismic vulnerability assessment of historical masonry churches including architectural and artistic assets based on macro-element approach. International Journal of Architectural Heritage, 15(11), 1609–1622.

Santa-Cruz, S., Cordova-Arias, C., Brioso, X., & Vazquez-Rowe, I. (2021). Transparency-based protocol for decision-making regarding seismic rehabilitation projects of public buildings. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 55, Article 102116.

Santarsiero, G., Masi, A., Manfredi, V., & Ventura, G. (2021). Requalification of RC frame apartment buildings: Comparison of seismic retrofit solutions based on a multi-criteria approach. Sustainability, 13(17), Article 9962.

Selvan, S. U., Saroglou, S. T., Joschinski, J., Calbi, M., Vogler, V., Barath, S., & Grobman, Y. J. (2023). Toward multi-species building envelopes: A critical literature review of multi-criteria decision-making for design support. Building and Environment, 231, Article 110006.

Shahriar, A., Modirzadeh, M., Sadiq, R., & Tesfamariam, S. (2012). Seismic induced damageability evaluation of steel buildings: a Fuzzy-TOPSIS method. Earthquakes and Structures, 3(5), 695–717.

Sierra, L. A., Yepes, V., & Pellicer, E. (2018). A review of multi-criteria assessment of the social sustainability of infrastructures. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 496–513.

Sinha, N., Priyanka, N., & Joshi, P. K. (2016). Using Spatial multi-criteria analysis and ranking tool (SMART) in earthquake risk assessment: A case study of Delhi region, India. Geomatics Natural Hazards & Risk, 7(2), 680–701.

Stanujkic, D., Popovic, G., Karabasevic, D., Meidute-Kavaliauskiene, I., & Ulutas, A. (2023). An integrated simple weighted sum product method-WISP. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 70(5), 1933–1944.

Tartaglia, R., Milone, A., D’Aniello, M., & Landolfo, R. (2022). Retrofit of non-code conforming moment resisting beam-to-column joints: A case study. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 189, Article 107095.

Terracciano, G., Di Lorenzo, G., Formisano, A., & Landolfo, R. (2015). Cold-formed thin-walled steel structures as vertical addition and energetic retrofitting systems of existing masonry buildings. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering, 19(7), 850–866.

Tesfamariam, S., Sadiq, R., & Najjaran, H. (2010). Decision making under uncertainty – An example for seismic risk management. Risk Analysis, 30(1), 78–94.

Usman Kaoje, I., Abdul Rahman, M. Z., Idris, N. H., Razak, K. A., Wan Mohd Rani, W. N. M., Tam, T. H., & Mohd Salleh, M. R. (2021). Physical flood vulnerability assessment using geospatial indicator-based approach and participatory analytical hierarchy process: A case study in Kota Bharu, Malaysia. Water, 13(13), Article 1786.

Uva, G., Sangiorgio, V., Ruggieri, S., & Fatiguso, F. (2019). Structural vulnerability assessment of masonry churches supported by user-reported data and modern Internet of Things (IoT). Measurement, 131, 183–192.

Vahdat, K., Smith, N. J., & Amiri, G. G. (2014). Fuzzy multicriteria for developing a risk management system in seismically prone areas. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 48(4), 235–248.

Vázquez-Rowe, I., Córdova-Arias, C., Brioso, X., & Santa-Cruz, S. (2021). A method to include life cycle assessment results in Choosing by Advantage (CBA) multicriteria decision analysis. A case study for seismic retrofit in Peruvian primary schools. Sustainability, 13(15), Article 8139.

Vona, M., Anelli, A., Mastroberti, M., Murgante, B., & Santa-Cruz, S. (2017). Prioritization strategies to reduce the seismic risk of the public and strategic buildings. Disaster Advances, 10(4), 1–15.

Wen, Z., Liao, H., Zavadskas, E. K., & Antuchevicienc, J. (2021). Applications of fuzzy multiple criteria decision making methods in civil engineering: A state-of-the-art survey. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 27(6), 358–371.

Yariyan, P., Zabihi, H., Wolf, I. D., Karami, M., & Amiriyan, S. (2020). Earthquake risk assessment using an integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process with artificial neural networks based on GIS: A case study of Sanandaj in Iran. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 50, Article 101705.

Zavadskas, E. K., Govindan, K., Antucheviciene, J., & Turskis, Z. (2016). Hybrid multiple criteria decision-making methods: A review of applications for sustainability issues. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, 29(1), 857–887.

Zavadskas, E. K., Antucheviciene, J., Vilutiene, T., & Adeli, H. (2018). Sustainable decision-making in civil engineering, construction and building technology. Sustainability, 10(1), Article 14.

Zavadskas, E. K., Antucheviciene, J., Hosseini, M. R., & Martek, I. (2021). Sustainable construction engineering and management. Sustainability, 13(23), Article 13028.

Zhen, Y., Liu, S., Zhong, G., Zhou, Z., Liang, J., Zheng, W., & Fang, Q. (2022). Risk assessment of flash flood to buildings using an indicator-based methodology: A case study of mountainous rural settlements in Southwest China. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10.

Zhu, X., Meng, X., & Zhang, M. (2021). Application of multiple criteria decision making methods in construction: A systematic literature review. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 27(6), 372–403.

Zhu, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, J., Chen, Y., Liu, Y., & Liu, H. (2023). Multi-criteria seismic risk assessment based on Combined Weight-TOPSIS model and CF-Logistic regression model – A case study of Songyuan City, China. Sustainability, 15(14), Article 11216.

Zuluaga, S. S., Kallioras, S., & Tsiavos, A. (2022). Optimization of synergetic seismic and energy retrofitting based on timber beams and bio-based infill panels: Application to an existing masonry building in Switzerland. Buildings, 12(8), Article 1126.