Valorization of diverse sizes of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate in the performance of lightweight foamed concrete
In recent years, research work on the use of coal bottom ash (CBA) as a partial alternative for aggregate in concrete is on the rise. This research is aimed at examining the characteristics of lightweight foamed concrete with CBA as fine aggregate to produce environmentally sustainable product. With the volume replacement technique, CBA was used as 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% replacement for conventional mining sand with different sieve sizes of smaller than 4.75, 2.36, and 0.6 mm in concrete. Water absorption, porosity as well as mechanical characteristics tests, including compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were conducted and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy microstructural investigations were also performed to correlate test results. The quality of concrete was investigated using a non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test. According to the findings, the highest replacement level of CBA with a sieve size smaller than 0.6 mm had an impact in reducing workability. The effect of CBA particles on water absorption, MOE, compressive strength, and tensile strength depends on the size of the fine aggregate, the replacement ratio and the density. In general, substituting mining sand with CBA aggregate improved the mechanical performance of concrete, notably for the aggregate size of less than 0.6 mm. Moreover, the SEM images indicate that the addition of CBA particles decreased the size and quantity of voids in the foamed concrete.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aggarwal, Y., & Siddique, R. (2014). Microstructure and properties of concrete using bottom ash and waste foundry sand as partial replacement of fine aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 54, 210–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.12.051
Alnahhal, A. M., Alengaram, U. J., Yusoff, S., Singh, R., Radwan, M. K. H., & Deboucha, W. (2021). Synthesis of sustainable lightweight foamed concrete using palm oil fuel ash as a cement replacement material. Journal of Building Engineering, 35, 102047. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2020.102047
Alnahhal, A. M., Alengaram, U. J., Yusoff, S., Darvish, P., Srinivas, K., & Sumesh, M. (2022). Engineering performance of sustainable geopolymer foamed and non-foamed concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 316, 125601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.125601
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2009). Standard test method for pulse velocity through concrete (No. ASTM C597-09).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2011). Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete specimens (No. ASTM C496-11).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2013a). Standard specification for concrete aggregates 1 (No. ASTM C33/C33M-13).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2013b). Standard specification for standard sand (No. ASTM C778-13).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2013c). Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete (No. ASTM C642-13).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014a). Standard specification for Portland Cement (No. ASTM C150-14).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014b). Standard specification for coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete (No. ASTM C618-14).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014c). Standard test methods for chemical analysis of hydraulic cement (No. ASTM C114-14).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014d). Standard test method for sieve analysis of fine and coarse aggregates (No. ASTM C136/C136M-14).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014e). Standard specification for mortar for unit masonry (No. ASTM C270-14).
American Society for Testing and Materials. (2014f). Standard test method for static modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio of concrete in compression (No. ASTM C469/C469M-14).
Argiz, C., Moragues, A., & Menéndez, E. (2018). Use of ground coal bottom ash as cement constituent in concretes exposed to chloride environments. Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.117
Aswathy, P. U., & Paul, M. M. (2015). Behaviour of self compacting concrete by partial replacement of fine aggregate with coal bottom ash. International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering (IJIRAE), 2(10), 45–52.
Bai, Y., Darcy, F., & Basheer, P. A. M. (2005). Strength and drying shrinkage properties of concrete containing furnace bottom ash as fine aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 19(9), 691–697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.02.021
Baite, E., Messan, A., Hannawi, K., Tsobnang, F., & Prince, W. (2016). Physical and transfer properties of mortar containing coal bottom ash aggregates from Tefereyre (Niger). Construction and Building Materials, 125, 919–926. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.08.117
Bakoshi, T., Kohno, K., Kawasaki, S., & Yamaji, N. (1998). Strength and durability of concrete using bottom ash as replacement for fine aggregate. American Concrete Institute, ACI Special Publication.
Balasubramaniam, T., & Thirugnanam, G. S. (2015). An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of bottom ash concrete. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(10), 992–997. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i10/54307
Bohari, A. A. M., Skitmore, M., Xia, B., & Teo, M. (2017). Green oriented procurement for building projects: Preliminary findings from Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 148, 690–700. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.01.141
British Standards Institution. (1986). Testing concrete. Methods for mixing and sampling fresh concrete in the laboratory (No. BS 1881-125:1986).
Cai, Q., Ma, B., Jiang, J., Wang, J., Shao, Z., Hu, Y., Qian, B., & Wang, L. (2021). Utilization of waste red gypsum in autoclaved aerated concrete preparation. Construction and Building Materials, 291, 123376.
Cheriaf, M., Rocha, J. C., & Péra, J. (1999). Pozzolanic properties of pulverized coal combustion bottom ash. Cement and Concrete Research, 29(9), 1387–1391. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00098-8
Chua, S. C., & Oh, T. H. (2010). Review on Malaysia’s national energy developments: Key policies, agencies, programmes and international involvements. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9), 2916–2925. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.07.031
Chung, S.-Y., Abd Elrahman, M., Kim, J.-S., Han, T.-S., Stephan, D., & Sikora, P. (2019). Comparison of lightweight aggregate and foamed concrete with the same density level using image-based characterizations. Construction and Building Materials, 211, 988–999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.270
Comite Euro-International Du Beton. (1990). CEB-FIP Model code 1990: Design code.
Elsharief, A., Cohen, M. D., & Olek, J. (2005). Influence of lightweight aggregate on the microstructure and durability of mortar. Cement and Concrete Research, 35(7), 1368–1376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.07.011
European Committee for Standardization. (2019). Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens (No. EN 12390-3:2019).
Falliano, D., De Domenico, D., Ricciardi, G., & Gugliandolo, E. (2018). Key factors affecting the compressive strength of foamed concrete. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 431(6), 062009. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/431/6/062009
Farahani, H., & Bayazidi, S. (2018). Modeling the assessment of socio-economical and environmental impacts of sand mining on local communities: A case study of Villages Tatao River Bank in North-western part of Iran. Resources Policy, 55, 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol.2017.11.001
Galvánková, L., Másilko, J., Solný, T., & Štěpánková, E. (2016). Tobermorite synthesis under hydrothermal conditions. Procedia Engineering, 151, 100–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.394
Gencel, O., Kazmi, S. M. S., Munir, M. J., Kaplan, G., Bayraktar, O. Y., Yarar, D. O., Karimipour, A., & Ahmad, M. R. (2021). Influence of bottom ash and polypropylene fibers on the physico-mechanical, durability and thermal performance of foam concrete: An experimental investigation. Construction and Building Materials, 306, 124887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124887
Ghadzali, N. S., Ibrahim, M. H. W., Zuki, S. S. M., Sani, M. S. H., & Al-Fasih, M. Y. M. (2020). Material characterization and optimum usage of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) as sand replacement in concrete. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 12(9), 9–17. https://doi.org/10.30880/ijie.2020.12.09.002
Ghafoori, N., & Bucholc, J. (1997). Properties of high-calcium dry bottom ash concrete. ACI Materials Journal, 94(2), 90–101. https://doi.org/10.14359/289
Gielen, D., Boshell, F., Saygin, D., Bazilian, M. D., Wagner, N., & Gorini, R. (2019). The role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation. Energy Strategy Reviews, 24, 38–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.01.006
Gursel, A. P., & Ostertag, C. (2019). Life-cycle assessment of high-strength concrete mixtures with copper slag as sand replacement. Advances in Civil Engineering, 6815348. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6815348
Hamidah, M., Azmi, I., Ruslan, M. R. A., Kartini, K., Fadhil, N. M., Shir, R. K., Newlands, M. D., & McCarthy, A. (2005). Optimisation of foamed concrete mix of different sand-cement ratio and curing conditions. In Use of Foamed Concrete in Construction: Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK. Thomas Telford Publishing.
Hamzah, A. F., Ibrahim, M. H. W., Jamaluddin, N., Jaya, R. P., Arshad, M., Zainal Abidin, N., Manan, E., & Omar, N. (2016). Nomograph of self-compacting concrete mix design incorporating coal bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregates. Journal of Engineering Applied Sciences, 11(7), 1671–1675.
Hou, X., Struble, L. J., & Kirkpatrick, R. J. (2004). Formation of ASR gel and the roles of C-S-H and portlandite. Cement and Concrete Research, 34(9), 1683–1696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.03.026
Kabir, S. M. A., Alengaram, U. J., Jumaat, M. Z., Yusoff, S., Sharmin, A., & Bashar, I. I. (2017). Performance evaluation and some durability characteristics of environmental friendly palm oil clinker based geopolymer concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 161, 477–492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.05.002
Kasemchaisiri, R., & Tangtermsirikul, S. (2008). Properties of self-compacting concrete incorporating bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregate. ScienceAsia, 34, 87–95. https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2008.34.087
Kassem, M., Soliman, A., & El Naggar, H. (2018). Sustainable approach for recycling treated oil sand waste in concrete: Engineering properties and potential applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 204, 50–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.349
Kim, H. K., & Lee, H. K. (2011). Use of power plant bottom ash as fine and coarse aggregates in high-strength concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), 1115–1122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.065
Kim, H. K., Jeon, J. H., & Lee, H. K. (2012). Flow, water absorption, and mechanical characteristics of normal- and high-strength mortar incorporating fine bottom ash aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 26(1), 249–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.06.019
Kiran Kumar, M. S., Harish, K. S., Vinay, R. B., & Ramesh, M. (2018). Experimental study on partial replacement of fine aggregate by bottom ash in cement concrete. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 5(5), 1505–1508.
Kou, S.-C., & Poon, C.-S. (2009). Properties of concrete prepared with crushed fine stone, furnace bottom ash and fine recycled aggregate as fine aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 23(8), 2877–2886. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.02.009
Kozłowski, M., & Kadela, M. (2018). Mechanical characterization of lightweight foamed concrete. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 6801258. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6801258
Kumar, D., Gupta, A., & Ram, S. (2014). Uses of bottom ash in the replacement of fine aggregate for making concrete. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 4(6), 3891–3895.
Kurama, H., & Kaya, M. (2008). Usage of coal combustion bottom ash in concrete mixture. Construction and Building Materials, 22(9), 1922–1928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.07.008
Kurama, H., Topçu, İ. B., & Karakurt, C. (2009). Properties of the autoclaved aerated concrete produced from coal bottom ash. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(2), 767–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.02.044
Lee, H. K., Kim, H. K., & Hwang, E. A. (2010). Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete. Waste Management, 30(2), 274–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.09.043
Li, X., Liu, Z., Lv, Y., Cai, L., Jiang, D., Jiang, W., & Jian, S. (2018). Utilization of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in autoclaved aerated concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 178, 175–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.05.147
Lim, S. K., Tan, C. S., Chen, K. P., Lee, M. L., & Lee, W. P. (2013). Effect of different sand grading on strength properties of cement grout. Construction and Building Materials, 38, 348–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.08.030
Madhkhan, M., & Katirai, R. (2019). Effect of pozzolanic materials on mechanical properties and aging of glass fiber reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 225, 146–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.128
Majhi, R., & Nayak, A. N. (2019). Properties of concrete incorporating coal fly ash and coal bottom ash. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India), 100(3), 459–469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40030-019-00374-y
Majhi, R., Patel, S. K., & Nayak, A. (2021a). Sustainable structural lightweight concrete utilizing high-volume fly ash cenosphere. Advances in Concrete Construction, 12, 257–270. https://doi.org/10.12989/acc.2021.12.3.257
Majhi, R. K., Padhy, A., & Nayak, A. N. (2021b). Performance of structural lightweight concrete produced by utilizing high volume of fly ash cenosphere and sintered fly ash aggregate with silica fume. Cleaner Engineering and Technology, 3, 100121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clet.2021.100121
Malaysia Energy Commission. (2017). Malaysia energy statistics handbook.
Mamat, R., Sani, M., & Sudhakar, K. (2019). Renewable energy in Southeast Asia: Policies and recommendations. Science of the Total Environment, 670, 1095–1102.
Mangi, S. A., Ibrahim, M. W., Jamaluddin, N., Arshad M., & Ramadhansyah, P. (2019). Effects of ground coal bottom ash on the properties of concrete. Journal of Engineering Science Technology, 14(1), 338–350.
Muthusamy, K., Hafizuddin, R. M., Yahaya, F. M., Sulaiman, M., Mohsin, S. S., Tukimat, N., Omar R., & Chin, S. (2018). Compressive strength performance of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial fine aggregate replacement. IOP Conference Series, 342, 012099. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/342/1/012099
Muthusamy, K., Rasid, M. H., Jokhio, G. A., Budiea, A. M. A., Hussin, M. W., & Mirza, J. (2020). Coal bottom ash as sand replacement in concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 236, 117507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.117507
Muthusamy, K., M. Rasid, M. H., Isa, N. N., Hamdan, N. H., Jamil, N. A. S., Budea, A. M. A., & Ahmad, S. W. (2021). Mechanical properties and acid resistance of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete containing coal bottom ash. Materials Today: Proceedings, 41(1), 47–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.10.1001
Nambiar, E. K. K., & Ramamurthy, K. (2007). Sorption characteristics of foam concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 37(9), 1341–1347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.05.010
Neville, A. M., & Brooks, J. J. (2010). Concrete technology. Prentice Hall.
Onprom, P., Chaimoon, K., & Cheerarot, R. (2015). Influence of bottom ash replacements as fine aggregate on the property of cellular concrete with various foam contents. Journal of Advances in Materials Science Engineering, 381704. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/381704
Opoku, A. (2019). Biodiversity and the built environment: Implications for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 141, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.10.011
Opon, J., & Henry, M. (2019). An indicator framework for quantifying the sustainability of concrete materials from the perspectives of global sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 218, 718–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.01.220
Patel, S., Satpathy, H., Nayak, A., & Mohanty, C. (2019). Utilization of fly ash cenosphere for production of sustainable lightweight concrete. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 101, 179–194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40030-019-00415-6
Patel, S. K., & Nayak, A. N. (2021). Study on specific compressive strength of concrete with fly ash cenosphere. In B. Das,
S. Barbhuiya, R. Gupta, & P. Saha (Eds.), Lecture notes in civil engineering: Vol. 75. Recent developments in sustainable infrastructure. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-4577-1_47
Rafieizonooz, M., Mirza, J., Salim, M., Hussin, R. M. W., & Khankhaje, E. (2016). Investigation of coal bottom ash and fly ash in concrete as replacement for sand and cement. Construction and Building Materials, 116, 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.080
Rathnayake, M., Julnipitawong, P., Tangtermsirikul, S., & Toochinda, P. (2018). Utilization of coal fly ash and bottom ash as solid sorbents for sulfur dioxide reduction from coal fired power plant: Life cycle assessment and applications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 202, 934–945. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.204
Sachdeva, A., & Khurana, G. (2015). Strength evaluation of cement concrete using bottom ash as a partial replacement of fine aggregates. International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(6), 189–194.
Sani, M. S. H. M., Muftah, F., & Muda, Z. (2010). The properties of special concrete using washed bottom ash (WBA) as partial sand replacement. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering and Technology, 1(2), 65–76.
Sathiparan, N., & De Zoysa, H. T. S. M. (2018). The effects of using agricultural waste as partial substitute for sand in cement blocks. Journal of Building Engineering, 19, 216–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobe.2018.04.023
Satpathy, H. P., Patel, S. K., & Nayak, A. N. (2019). Development of sustainable lightweight concrete using fly ash cenosphere and sintered fly ash aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 202, 636–655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.01.034
Shahbaz, M., Yusup, S., Pratama, A., Inayat, A., Patrick, D. O., & Ammar, M. (2016). Parametric study and optimization of methane production in biomass gasification in the presence of coal bottom ash. Procedia Engineering, 148, 409–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.432
Siddique, R. (2013). Compressive strength, water absorption, sorptivity, abrasion resistance and permeability of self-compacting concrete containing coal bottom ash. Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1444–1450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.06.081
Siddique, R., & Cachim, P. (2018). Waste and supplementary cementitious materials in concrete: Characterisation, properties and applications. Woodhead Publishing.
Singh, M., & Siddique, R. (2014). Strength properties and micro-structural properties of concrete containing coal bottom ash as partial replacement of fine aggregate. Construction and Building Materials, 50, 246–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.09.026
Singh, M., & Siddique, R. (2015). Properties of concrete containing high volumes of coal bottom ash as fine aggregate. Journal of Cleaner Production, 91, 269–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.12.026
Singh, M., & Siddique, R. (2016). Effect of coal bottom ash as partial replacement of sand on workability and strength properties of concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 620–630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.001
Singh, N., Mithulraj, M., & Arya, S. (2018). Influence of coal bottom ash as fine aggregates replacement on various properties of concretes: A review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 138, 257–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.07.025
Tian, Y., Zhou, X., Yang, Y., & Nie, L. (2020). Experimental analysis of air-steam gasification of biomass with coal-bottom ash. Journal of the Energy Institute, 93(1), 25–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joei.2019.04.012
Topçu, I. B., & Bilir, T. (2010). Effect of bottom ash as fine aggregate on shrinkage cracking of mortars. ACI Materials Journal, 107(1), 48–56. https://doi.org/10.14359/51663465
Yang, K.-H., Hwang, Y.-H., Lee, Y., & Mun, J.-H. (2019). Feasibility test and evaluation models to develop sustainable insulation concrete using foam and bottom ash aggregates. Construction and Building Materials, 225, 620–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.07.130
Yang, K.-H., Mun, J.-H., & Kwon, S.-J. (2020). Unrestrained and restrained shrinkage behavior of sustainable lightweight concrete using air foam and bottom ash aggregates. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 32(10), 04020287. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0003375
Yao, Z. T., Ji, X. S., Sarker, P. K., Tang, J. H., Ge, L. Q., Xia, M. S., & Xi, Y. Q. (2015). A comprehensive review on the applications of coal fly ash. Earth-Science Reviews, 141, 105–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.11.016
Yüksel, I., & Genç, A. (2007). Properties of concrete containing nonground ash and slag as fine aggregate. ACI Materials Journal, 104(4), 397–403. https://doi.org/10.14359/18829
Yüksel, İ., Siddique, R., & Özkan, Ö. (2011). Influence of high temperature on the properties of concretes made with industrial by-products as fine aggregate replacement. Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), 967–972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.085
Zhang, M.-H., & Gjørv, O. E. (1990). Microstructure of the interfacial zone between lightweight aggregate and cement paste. Cement and Concrete Research, 20(4), 610–618. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(90)90103-5
Zhang, M.-H., & Gjørv, O. E. (1992). Penetration of cement paste into lightweight aggregate. Cement and Concrete Research, 22(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0008-8846(92)90135-I