The smartness profile of selected European cities in urban management – a comparison analysis

    Sławomira Hajduk   Affiliation


The smart cities concept plays an important role in urban management worldwide as well as should be implemented with the participation of residents and with consideration for their needs. This study examines an analysis of the smartness diversity of European cities on the basis of the International Organization for Standardization 37120 norm dealing with sustainable development of communities. Cities with a higher level of certification exhibit more effective management and their residents show greater commitment to civic life. The assessment of the level of smartness was based on statistics collected by the World Council on City Data using Multidimensional Comparative Analysis. Hellwig’s (1968) synthetic indicators were used to create a ranking gauging the level of smartness of European cities which were classified into four groups. The investigation shows large disparities in the smartness of selected European cities.

Keyword : territorial management, spatial management, smart city, urban management, ISO37120, European cities

How to Cite
Hajduk, S. (2018). The smartness profile of selected European cities in urban management – a comparison analysis. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 19(6), 797-812.
Published in Issue
Dec 31, 2018
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Albino, V., Berardi, U., & Dangelico, R. M. (2015). Smart cities: definitions, dimensions, performance and initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology, 22(1), 3-21.

Aleksjeczuk, A., & Sachpazidu–Wójcicka, K. (2015). Determinanty rozwoju e-usług w administracji publicznej w Polsce. Economics and Management, 1, 32-43.

Andrews, R., & Van de Walle, S. (2013). New public management and citizens’ perceptions of local service efficiency, responsiveness, equity and effectiveness. Public Management Review, 15(5), 762-783.

Antunes, P., Sapateiro, C., Zurita, G., & Baloian, N. (2010). Integrating spatial data and decision models in an e-planning tool. Collaboration and Technology, 6257, 97-112.

Baclija, I. (2012). Measuring new public management at the local level: experience from EU cities. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 37, 23-37.

Bosch, P., Jongeneel, S., Rovers, V., Neumann, H. M., Airaksinen, M., & Huovila, A. (2017). CITYkeys indicators for smart city projects and smart cities (pp. 10-13). Retrieved from

Braid, R. M. (2001). Spatial growth and redevelopment with perfect foresight and durable housing. Journal of Urban Economics, 49(3), 425-452.

Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of Urban Technology, 18(2), 65-82.

Cohen, B. (2012). The smart city wheel. Retrieved from––city/boyd–cohen–smart–city–wheel/

Dall’O’, G., Bruni, E., Panza, A., Sarto, L., & Khayatian, F. (2017). Evaluation of cities’ smartness by means of indicators for small and medium cities and communities: a methodology for Northern Italy. Sustainable Cities and Society, 34, 193-202.

Dameri, R. P., & Garelli, R. (2014, 18-19 September). Measuring business benefits and performance in smart cities. 9th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (pp. 137-144). Belfast, Ireland.

Dameri, R. P., & Ricciardi, F. (2015). Smart city intellectual capital: an emerging view of territorial system innovation. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 16(4), 860-887.

Dirks, S., & Keeling, M. (2009). A vision of smarter cities. How cities can lead the way into a prosperous and sustainable future. IBM global business services. Retrieved from https://www––_Final.pdf

Duran-Sanchez, A., Rio-Rama, M. C., Sereno-Ramirez, A., & Bredis, K. (2016). Sustainability and quality of life in smart cities: analysis of scientific production. In M. Peris-Ortiz, D. R. Bennett, & D. Perez-Bustamante Yaba (Eds.), Sustainable smart cities. Creating spaces for technological, social and business development (pp. 159-181). Springer.

European Union. (2014). Mapping smart cities in the EU. Retrieved from–ITRE_ET(2014)507480_EN.pdf

Fertner, C., Jørgensen, G., Nielson, T. A. S., & Nilsson, K. S. B. (2016). Urban sprawl and growth management – drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities. Future Cities and Environment, 2(9).

Flynn, N. (2012). Public sector management. London: Sage Publications.

Fox, M. S. (2015). The role of ontologies in publishing and analyzing city indicators. Computers, Environment and Urban System, 54, 266-279.

Giffinger, R. (2015). Smart city concepts: chances and risks of energy efficient urban development. International Conference Smart Cities and Green ICT Systems. International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems (pp. 3-16).

Giffinger, R., Fertner, C., Kramar, H., Kalasek, R., Pichler-Milanović, N., & Meijers, E. (2007). Smart cities – ranking of European medium–sized cities. Vienna, Austria: Centre of Regional Science, Vienna University of Technology. Retrieved from

Globalization and World Cities. (2016). The world according to GaWC 2016, Loughborough. Retrieved from

Guyon, I., & Elisseeff, A. (2003). An introduction to feature extraction. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing, 3, 1-25.

Hajduk, S. (2018). Instruments of spatial management in the context of sustainability – a multi-dimensional comparative analysis of the regional cities. Annual Set The Environmental Protection, 20, 1219-1233.

Hajduk, S. (2017). Bibliometric analysis of publications on city logistics in international scientific literature. Procedia Engineering, 182, 282-290.

Hajduk, S. (2016). Smart specialization in the context of innovativeness in the regional spatial management. Proceeding of Selected Papers: Smart and Efficient Economy: Preparation for the Future Innovative Economy (pp. 542-549).

Harrison, C., Eckman, B., Hamilton, R., Hartswick, P., Kalagnanam, J., Paraszczak, J., & Williams, P. (2010). Foundations for smarter cities. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 54(4), 1-16.

He, F. (2017, 16-18 June). Research on evaluation system of smart city construction based on analytic hierarchy process. 7th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Computer Science (pp. 886-891). Shenyang, China.

Hellwig, Z. (1968). Zastosowanie metody taksonomicznej do typologicznego podziału krajów ze względu na poziom rozwoju i strukturę kwalifikowanych kadr. Przegląd Statystyczny, 4, 3070-327.

Hollands, R. G. (2014). Critical interventions into the corporate smart city. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8(1), 61-77.

Howe, J., & Langdon, C. (2002). Towards a Reflexive planning theory. Planning Theory, 1(3), 209-225.

Horelli, L. (2013). New approaches to urban planning. Insights from Participatory Communities, Aalto University publication series, Aalto–ST 10. Helsinki: Unigrafia Oy.

Hu, X., Li, X., Ngai, E., Leung, V., & Kruchten, P. (2014). Multidimensional context–aware social network architecture for mobile crowdsensing. IEEE Communications Magazine, 52(6), 78-87.

Institute for Urban Strategies. (2016). Global power city index 2016. The Mori Memorial Foundation, London–New York–Paris. Retrieved from http://www.mori–m–

IESE. (2017). IESE cities in motion. IESE Business School University Navara. Retrieved from

Juniper Research. (2017). Smart cities – what’s in it for citizens? Retrieved from–content/uploads/sites/11/2018/03/smart–cities–whats–in–it–for–citizens.pdf

Kearney, A. T. (2017). Global cities: leaders in a world of disruptive innovation. Retrieved from–+Leaders+in+a+World+of+Disruptive+Innovation.pdf/c00b71dd–18ab–4d6b–8ae6–526e380d6cc4

Kobayashi Kaneko, A. R., Kniess, C. T., Ribeiro Serra, F. A., Nogueira Ferraz, R. R., & Ruiz, M. S. (2017). Smart sustainable cities: bibliometric study and patent information. International Journal of Innovation, 5(1), 77-96.

Komninos, N. (2006). The architecture of intelligent cities: integrating human, collective and artificial intelligence to enhance knowledge and innovation. 2nd IET International Conference on Intelligent Environment (pp. 13-20). Athens.

Komninos, N. (2011). Intelligent cities: variable geometries of spatial intelligence. Intelligent Buildings International, 3(3), 172-188.

Labra, R., & Sanchez, M. P. (2013). National intellectual capital assessment models: a literature review. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 14(4), 582-607.

Lesot, M. J. (2006). Outlier preserving clustering for structured data though kernels. Studies in classification, data analysis, and knowledge organization (pp. 462-469).

Lombardi, P., Giordano, S., Farouh, H., & Yousef, W. (2012). Modelling the smart city performance. The European Journal of Social Science Research, 25(2), 137-149.

Lynch, M. (2015). Standardized indicators for resilient cities: ISO 37120 & The World Council on City Data. Retrieved from

Marsal-Llacuna, M. L. (2015). Building universal socio-cultural indicators for standardizing the safe-guarding of citizens’ rights in smart cities. Social Indicators Research, 130, 563-579.

McCarney, P. (2015). The evolution of global city indicators and ISO 37120: The first international standard on city indicators. Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 31, 103-110.

Młodak, A. (2006). Analiza taksonomiczna w statystyce regionalnej. Difin, Warszawa.

Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011). Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference on Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times (pp. 282-291).

Neirotti, P., De Marso, A., Cagliano, A. C., Mangano, G., & Scorrano, F. (2014). Current trends in smart city initiatives: some stylised facts. City, 38, 25-36.

Ntungo, C. (2007). Quality culture in government: the pursuit a quality management model. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 18(1-2), 135-145.

Panek, T. (2009). Statystyczne metody wielowymiarowej analizy porównawczej. Szkoła Główna Handlowa, Warszawa.

Pike, A., Rodriguez-Pose, A., & Tomaney, J. (2006). Local and regional development. London-New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group.

Rathore, M. M., Ahmad, A., Paul, A., & Rho, S. (2016). Urban planning and building smart cities based on the internet of things using Big Data analytics. Computer Networks, 101, 63-80.

Ricciardi, F., & Za, S. (2014). Smart city research as in interdisciplinary crossroads: a challenge for management and organization studies. In L. Mola, F. Pennarola, & S. Za (Eds.), From information to smart society: environment, politics and economics. Lecture notes in information system and organisation (pp. 163-171). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Rios, P. (2008). Creating ‘the smart city”. Retrieved from

Roberge, I. (2013). Futures construction in public management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 26(7), 534-542.

Salet, W., & Thornley, A. (2007). Institutional influences on the integration of multilevel governance and spatial policy in European city-regions. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 27(2), 188-198.

Schuler, D. (2016). Smart cities plus smart citizens = civic intelligence? In G. Concilio, & F. Rizzo (Eds.), Human smart cities: rethinking the interplay between design and planning. Book Series: Urban and Landscape Perspectives (pp. 41-60).

Shapiro, J. M. (2006). Smart cities: quality of life, productivity, and the growth effects of human capital. Review of Economics & Statistics, 88(2), 324-335.

Steele, R. (2014). ISO 37120 standard on city indicators – how they help city leaders set tangible targets, including service quality and quality of life. Centre for Liveable Cites, Singapore. Retrieved from–2014–Rob–steele–Terry–Hill.pdf

The Mori Memorial Foundation. (2017). Global Power City Index 2017. GPCI 10th Anniversary Special Edition, Tokyo 2017. Retrieved from http://mori–m–

Voytenko, Y., McCormick, K., Evans, J., & Schliwa, G. (2016). Urban living labs for sustainability and cities in Europe: towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 123, 45-54.

World Council on City Data. (2017). Retrieved from

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(1), 22-32.