The consumers perceptions of employer and service brand equity’s: the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis


While the traditional components of employer brand equity are applied in the context of an organization’s employees, this study sought to assess a hitherto unexplored context – the extent to which employer brand equity impacts on consumers of an organization’s service brand rather than the target audience. The two research objectives were: 1) to identify the specific dimensions of both employer and perceived service brand equities 2) to assess the relationship between them and consumer behavioral intentions. The study was based on quantitative data of 526 respondents, using both Exploratory (EFA), Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings confirmed the 3 (employer brand image, reputation, and awareness) and 4 (service brand image, perceived quality, service brand awareness, brand loyalty) factors of employer and service brand equities respectively. The study revealed the employer brand equity significant relationship with service brand equity, but the lack of direct effect on consumers’ behavioral intentions. The research is novel as it assesses the employer brand equity’s impact not only on the service brand’s overall perceived equity, but also on consumers’ behavioral intentions, by examining the impact on two different groups (existing and potential service brand consumers).

Keyword : service brand equity, employer brand equity, consumer perspective, impact, telecommunications, perception, purchase intention, repurchase intention

How to Cite
Ščiukauskė, I., Romeika, G., & Šarkiūnaitė, I. (2024). The consumers perceptions of employer and service brand equity’s: the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 25(1), 85–103.
Published in Issue
Feb 5, 2024
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Aaker, D. (1991). Managing brand equity: Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. The Free Press.

Alshathry, S. (2015). Exploring the role of employer brand equity in the labour market: Differences between existing employee and job seeker perceptions [Doctoral dissertation]. The University of Adelaide.

Ansary, A., & Hashim, N. M. H. N. (2018). Brand image and equity: The mediating role of brand equity drivers and moderating effects of product type and word of mouth. Review of Managerial Science, 12(4), 969–1002.

Anselmsson, J., Bondesson, N., & Melin, F. (2016). Customer-based brand equity and human resource management image: Do retail customers really care about HRM and the employer brand? European Journal of Marketing, 50(7–8), 1185–1208.

Augusto, M., & Torres, P. (2018). Effects of brand attitude and eWOM on consumers’ willingness to pay in the banking industry: Mediating role of consumer-brand identification and brand equity. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 42, 1–10.

Backhaus, K., & Tikoo, S. (2004). Conceptualizing and researching employer branding. Career Development International, 9(5), 501–517.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458.

Banerjee, P., Saini, G. K., & Kalyanaram, G. (2020). The role of brands in recruitment: Mediating role of employer brand equity. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 58(2), 173–196.

Bareket-Bojmel, L., & Shuv-Ami, A. (2019). The brand is my workplace. International Journal of Manpower, 40(5), 818–833.

Baum, M., & Kabst, R. (2014). The effectiveness of recruitment advertisements and recruitment websites: Indirect and interactive effects on applicant attraction. Human Resource Management, 53(3), 353–378.

Čekanavičius, V., & Murauskas, G. (2002). Statistika ir jos taikymai. TEV.

Chai, J. C. Y., Malhotra, N. K., & Alpert, F. (2015). A two-dimensional model of trust–value–loyalty in service relationships. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 26, 23–31.

Chang, H. H., & Liu, Y. M. (2009). The impact of brand equity on brand preference and purchase intentions in the service industries. The Service Industries Journal, 29(12), 1687–1706.

Chang, H. P., & Ma, C. C. (2015). Managing the service brand value of the hotel industry in an emerging market. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 47, 1–13.

Collins, C. J. (2007). The interactive effects of recruitment practices and product awareness on job seekers’ employer knowledge and application behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 180–190.

Collins, C. J., & Kanar, A. M. (2013). Employer brand equity and recruitment research. In D. M. Cable, & K. Y. Trevor Yu (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of recruitment (pp. 284–297). Oxford Academic.

Collins, C. J., & Martinez‐Moreno, J. E. (2022). Recruitment brand equity for unknown employers: Examining the effects of recruitment message claim verifiability and credibility on job pursuit intentions. Human Resource Management, 61(5), 585–597.

Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10(1), 1–9.

Davies, G., Mete, M., & Whelan, S. (2018). When employer brand image aids employee satisfaction and engagement. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 5(1), 64–80.

De Stobbeleir, K. E., De Clippeleer, I., Caniëls, M. C., Goedertier, F., Deprez, J., De Vos, A., & Buyens, D. (2018). The inside effects of a strong external employer brand: How external perceptions can influence organizational absenteeism rates. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(13), 2106–2136.

De Winter, J. C., & Dodou, D. (2012). Factor recovery by principal axis factoring and maximum likelihood factor analysis as a function of factor pattern and sample size. Journal of Applied Statistics, 39(4), 695–710.

Edwards, M. R. (2010). An integrative review of employer branding and OB theory. Personnel Review, 39(1), 5–23.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gaskin, J. (2014). Confirmatory factor analysis. Retrieved January 13, 2021, from

Grigore, G., Chapleo, C., Homberg, F., Alniacik, U., & Stancu, A. (2023). Employer branding dimensions: An adapted scale for Eastern Europe. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 1–20.

Gupta, S., & Saini, G. K. (2020). Information source credibility and job seekers’ intention to apply: The mediating role of brands. Global Business Review, 21(3), 743–762.

Highhouse, S., Lievens, F., & Sinar, E. F. (2003). Measuring attraction to organizations. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(6), 986–1001.

Hoppe, D. (2018). Linking employer branding and internal branding: Establishing perceived employer brand image as an antecedent of favourable employee brand attitudes and behaviours. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 27(4), 452–467.

Jiang, T., & Iles, P. (2011). Employer‐brand equity, organizational attractiveness and talent management in the Zhejiang private sector, China. Journal of Technology Management in China, 6(1), 97–110.

Joglekar, J., & Tan, C. S. (2022). The impact of LinkedIn posts on employer brand perception and the mediating effects of employer attractiveness and corporate reputation. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 19(4), 624–650.

Kashive, N., & Khanna, V. T. (2017). Study of early recruitment activities and employer brand knowledge and its effect on organization attractiveness and firm performance. Global Business Review, 18(S3), S172–S190.

Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.

Kim, K. H., Ko, E., Xu, B., & Han, Y. (2012). Increasing customer equity of luxury fashion brands through nurturing consumer attitude. Journal of Business Research, 65(10), 1495–1499.

Krystallis, A., & Chrysochou, P. (2014). The effects of service brand dimensions on brand loyalty. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(2), 139–147.

Liu, M. T., Wong, I. A., Tseng, T. H., Chang, A. W. Y., & Phau, I. (2017). Applying consumer-based brand equity in luxury hotel branding. Journal of Business Research, 81, 192–202.

Oliveira, M. O. R. de, Heldt, R., Silveira, C. S., & Luce, F. B. (2023). Brand equity chain and brand equity measurement approaches. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 41(4), 442–456.

Pakalniškienė, V. (2012). Tyrimo ir įvertinimo priemonių patikimumo ir validumo nustatymas (Metodinė priemonė). Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.

Pappu, R., Quester, P. G., & Cooksey, R. W. (2007). Country image and consumer-based brand equity: Relationships and implications for international marketing. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 726–745.

Park, H., & Kim, Y.-K. (2014). The role of social network websites in the consumer–brand relationship. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21(4), 460–467.

Pinar, M., Girard, T., Trapp, P., & Eser, Z. (2016). Services branding triangle: Examining the triadic service brand promises for creating a strong brand in banking industry. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 34(4), 529–549.

Puncheva-Michelotti, P., Vocino, A., Michelotti, M., & Gahan, P. (2018). Employees or consumers? The role of competing identities in individuals’ evaluations of corporate reputation. Personnel Review, 47(6), 1261–1284.

Reio Jr, T. G., & Shuck, B. (2015). Exploratory factor analysis: Implications for theory, research, and practice. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 17(1), 12–25.

Rosethorn, H. (2016). The employer brand: Keeping faith with the deal (2nd ed.). Routlege.

Rybaczewska, M. (2017). Employer image of the company from the perspective of its customers. International Journal of Contemporary Management, 16(1), 61–81.

Safeer, A. A., He, Y., Lin, Y., Abrar, M., & Nawaz, Z. (2023). Impact of perceived brand authenticity on consumer behavior: En evidence from generation Y in Asian perspective. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 18(3), 685–704.

Shrivastava, N. K., & Shukla, A. V. (2023). Measuring an employer brand: A study towards valid scale development (as a second-order factor of a structural model). International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 31(2), 550–568.

Spears, N., & Singh, S. N. (2004). Measuring attitude toward the brand and purchase intentions. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2), 53–66.

Spry, A., Pappu, R., & Cornwell, T. B. (2011). Celebrity endorsement, brand credibility and brand equity. European Journal of Marketing, 45(6), 882–909.

Theurer, C. P., Tumasjan, A., Welpe, I. M., & Lievens, F. (2018). Employer branding: A brand equity‐based literature review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), 155–179.

Torres, P., & Augusto, M. (2019). Building resilience to negative information and increasing purchase intentions in a digital environment. Journal of Business Research, 101, 528–535.

Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1–14.

Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lee, S. (2000). An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(2), 195–211.

Yu, K. Y. T., & Cable, D. M. (2012). Recruitment and competitive advantage: A brand equity perspective. In S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology, (vol. 1, pp. 197–220). Oxford Academic.