Emotional intelligence profiles and intergenerational collaboration in business

    Yuliia Fedorova Affiliation
    ; Anna Pilková Affiliation
    ; Juraj Mikuš Affiliation
    ; Michal Munk Affiliation
    ; Ján Rehák Affiliation


Emotional Intelligence (EI) fosters positive synergies for an intergenerational match in business. The main goal of this contribution is to investigate the components of ЕI for selected young people and seniors and to formulate recommendations for their successful intergenerational business cooperation in Slovakia. The 4-component instrumental model for EI in business and the “Emotional Intelligence in Business” questionnaire were used to construct an average EI profile for different generations. 157 young people (Generation Z) and 236 seniors (Baby Boomers generation) from Slovakia participated in the research. The statistical study of the components of EI was conducted using unadjusted and adjusted univariate tests for repeated measures and multiple comparisons. The results of both tests were identical and therefore considered robust. The research confirms that EI in business increases with the respondent’s age: investigated seniors demonstrate a higher level of EI than selected young people in three components. At the same time, findings show that seniors are more focused on self-awareness, while the young are more empathic. The research considerably deepens the understanding of the potential contributions of different generations in business collaboration and benefits social unity and sustainable economic development.

Keyword : emotional intelligence, EI, intergenerational collaboration, EI model, emotional intelligence profile, intergenerational entrepreneurship, collaboration in business

How to Cite
Fedorova, Y., Pilková, A., Mikuš, J., Munk, M., & Rehák, J. (2023). Emotional intelligence profiles and intergenerational collaboration in business. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 24(4), 797–817.
Published in Issue
Dec 7, 2023
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Ackley, D. (2016). Emotional intelligence: A practical review of models, measures, and applications. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(4), 269–286.

Ahmad, M. R. (2017). Testing homogeneity of several covariance matrices and multi-sample sphericity for high-dimensional data under non-normality. Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods, 46(8), 373–753.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Sanz-Vergel, A. I. (2014). Burnout and work engagement: The JD–R approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1, 389–411.

Bar-On, R. (2000). Emotional and social intelligence: Insights from the Emotional Quotient Inventory. In R. Bar-On & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace (pp. 363–388). Jossey-Bass.

Bayighomog, S., & Arasli, H. (2022). Reviving employees’ essence of hospitality through spiritual well-being, spiritual leadership, and emotional intelligence. Tourism Management, 89.

Brečko, D. (2021). Intergenerational cooperation and stereotypes in relation to age in the working environment. Changing Societies & Personalities, 5(1), 103–125.

Burnes, D., Sheppard, C., Henderson, C. R., Jr, Wassel, M., Cope, R., Barber, C., & Pillemer, K. (2019). Interventions to reduce ageism against older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 109(8).

Çetin, S. & Karakaş, A. (2021). Effects of emotional intelligence on knowledge sharing among employees: A study of HoReCa companies in Turkey. Upravlenets – The Manager, 12(3), 44–55.

Cheung, F., & Wu, A. M. (2013). Older workers’ successful aging and intention to stay. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 645–660.

Cropanzano, R., & Wright, T. A. (2001). When a “happy” worker is really a “productive” worker: A review and further refinement of the happy-productive worker thesis. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53(3), 182–199.

Dietz, L., & Fasbender, U. (2022). Age-diverse workplace friendship: A systematic literature review and recommendations for future research. Work, Aging and Retirement, 8(2), 163–197.

Dolot, A. (2018). The characteristic of Generation Z. e-mentor, 2(74), 44–50.

Ekoh, P. C. (2021). Anxiety, isolation and diminishing resources: The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on residential care home facilities for older people in south-east Nigeria. Working with Older People, 25(4), 273–282.

Farelo, R. & Gómez, F. (2021). Hacia la construcción de un modelo de Liderazgo Intergeneracional. Revista Internacional de Organizaciones, (25–26), 127–150.

Fasbender, U., Burmeister, A., & Wang, M. (2020). Motivated to be socially mindful: Explaining age differences in the effect of employees’ contact quality with coworkers on their coworker support. Personnel Psychology, 73(3), 407–430.

Fedorova, Y. (2020). Emotional capital of the manager as a source of income of the enterprise. Scientific View: Economics and Management, 2(68), 164–170.

Fedorova, Y., Korniush, H., Lutsenko, O., & Tsokota, V. (2022). Developing students’ emotional intelligence in English classes taught in the speaking club format. In M. E. Auer, W. Pachatz, & T. Rüütmann (Eds.), Lecture notes in networks and systems: Vol. 634. Learning in the age of digital and green transition. ICL 2022 (pp. 41–54). Springer.

Gardner, L., & Stough, C. (2002). Examining the relationship between leadership and emotional intelligence in senior level manager. Leadership & Development Journal, 23, 68–79.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books.

Haverkamp, N., & Beauducel, A. (2017). Violation of the sphericity assumption and its effect on type-i error rates in repeated measures ANOVA and multi-level linear models (MLM). Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article 1841.

Ingram, P., & Zou, X. (2008). Business friendships. Research in Organizational Behavior, 28, 167–184.

Jin, Z., Lukachin, C., Gopalan, A., & Sun, W. (2012). Correlation between SCIAMACHY, MODIS, and CERES reflectance measurements: Implications for CLARREO. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(D5), Article D05114.

Kautonen, T., Kibler, E., & Minniti, M. (2017). Late-career entrepreneurship, income and quality of life. Journal of Business Venturing, 32, 318–333.

Labanauskaitė, D., Župerkienė, E., Kumpf, A., Šimanskienė, L., & Koller, S. M. (2021). Development of digital and entrepreneurial competences for the future labour market needs. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 8(3), 565–581.

Lee, P. K. C., Cheng, T. C. E., Yeung, A. C. L., & Lai, K. (2011). An empirical study of transformational leadership, team performance and service quality in retail banks. Omega, 39(6), 690–701.

Lee, S., & Lee, D. K. (2018). What is the proper way to apply the multiple comparison test? Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 71(5), 353–360.

Lee, T., Goleman, D., Drucker, P., & Kotter, J. (2018). 10 Must reads on managing yourself. Harvard Business Press.

Leijon, M., Gudmundsson, P., Staaf, P., & Christersson, C. (2022). Challenge based learning in higher education – A systematic literature review. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 59(5), 609–618.

Lojda, J., Němec, O., Nyvlt, V., & Ližbetinová, L. (2020). Digitalisation in construction as an educational challenge for universities. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 960, Article 042095.

Lojda, J., Němec, O., Nývlt, V., & Ližbetinová, L. (2021). Mezigenerační sdílení kompetencí (1 ed.). České Budějovice.

Lutsenko, O., Fedorova, Yu., & Tsokota, V. R. (2021). Emotional intelligence as a general personality self-regulation resource – design of a new test “Emotional Intelligence in Business”. In Proceedings on Problems of personal resources in educational and professional activities, FOP Brovin O.V., Kharkiv, Ukraine (pp. 51–55).

Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2000). Models of emotional intelligence. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 396–420). Cambridge University Press.

Mikuš, J., Pilková, A., Fedorova, Y., & Btytan, Y. (2022). Model for the emotional intelligence’s development in entrepreneurship. In The Poprad Economic and Management Forum 2022 (pp. 402–409). VERBUM.

Mikuš, J., Pilková, A., Holienka, M., & Fedorova, Y. (2023). Emotional intelligence in the development of entrepreneurial competence. In M. E. Auer, W. Pachatz, & T. Rüütmann (Eds.), Lecture notes in networks and systems: Vol. 634. Learning in the age of digital and green transition. ICL 2022 (pp. 108–118). Springer.

Nurhas, I., Geisler, S., & Pawlowski, J. (2022). Developing a competency framework for intergenerational startup innovation in a digital collaboration setting. In Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (pp. 110–118).

Pekkan, N., & Bicer, M. (2022). Ethical climate’s mediating role on the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. Central European Management Journal, 30(1), 115–132.

Perez-Encinas, A., Bueno, Y., Santos, B., & Nieto-Mejia, C. (2021). Are there differences and complementarities between senior and young entrepreneurs? An intergenerational perspective. Sustainability, 13(9), Article 5202.

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D. (2021). Emotional intelligence profiles at the end of primary education and academic performance. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 52, 218–225.

Rožman, M., & Milfelner, B. (2022). The importance of intergenerational leadership praxes and availability of key information for older employee burnout and engagement in the context of firm size. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 858134.

Rožman, M., Treven, S., & Čančer, V. (2020). The impact of promoting intergenerational synergy on the work engagement of older employees in Sloveni. Journal of East European Management Studies, 25, 9–34.

Starks, A. (2013). The forthcoming generational workforce transition and rethinking organizational knowledge transfer. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 11(3), 223–237.

World Economic Forum. (2020). The Future of Jobs Report 2020.

United Nations. (2015). General assembly resolution A/RES/70/1. Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Seventieth United Nations General Assembly, 25 September 2015, New York.

Uzunbacak, H. H., Erhan, T., & Akcakanat, T. (2022). Emotionally intelligent employees’ work outcomes: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Etikonomi, 21(1), 11–40.

Wolff, S. (2005). Emotional competence inventory: Technical manual. The Hay Group.

Yadav, S., & Lenka, U. (2020). Workforce diversity: From a literature review to future research agenda. Journal of Indian Business Research, 12, 577–603.

Zhang, Q., & Hao, S. (2022). Construction project manager’s emotional intelligence and team effectiveness: The mediating role of team cohesion and the moderating effect of time. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.

Zhang, W., & Adegbola, O. (2022). Emotional intelligence and public relations: An empirical review. Public Relations Review, 43(3), Article 102199.

Znidarsic, J., & Dimovski, V. (2009). Age management: A new paradigm in HRM within Slovenian enterprises. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 25(3).