The engineering method for unifying ground floor slab settlements
For industrial buildings and logistics centres truck lifts are usually used. Therefore, there are special requirements for flatness tolerance of ground floor. The ground floor settlements differences in selected distances are limited. The article reviews the behaviour of soils and the importance of the actual behaviour assessment of soils during the design of floor slab on elastic subgrade. Particular attention is given to the behaviour of floor slab areas above pile foundations that support the building’s columns. Calculation results show the impact of subgrade stiffness on the behaviour of the floor slab, especially in areas above pile foundations, where the stiffness of subgrade is much higher. The article presents a solution for achieving the required level of settlements’ differences in areas where pile foundations for the building’s columns under the ground slab are used. The paper proposes an efficient engineering method to reduce ground slab settlements differences. The results of performed calculations confirm the efficiency of presented method.
First published online 23 March 2021
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ardah, A., Chen, Q., & Abu-Farsakh, M. (2017). Evaluating the performance of very weak subgrade soils treated/stabilized with cementitious materials for sustainable pavements. Transportation Geotechnics, 11, 107–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trgeo.2017.05.002
Bhaduri, A., & Choudhury, D. (2020). Serviceability-based finiteelement approach on analyzing combined pile-raft foundation. International Journal of Geomechanics, 20(2). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0001580
Deutsches Institut für Normung (1991). Warehouse systems with guided industrial trucks: requirements on the ground, the warehouse and other requirements (DIN 15185). 7. (In German).
El-Garhy, B., Galil, A. A., & Mari, M. (2018). Analysis of flexible raft resting on soft soil improved by granular piles considering soil shear interaction. Computers and Geotechnics, 94, 169–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.09.007
Elsamee, W. N. A. (2013). An experimental study on the effect of foundation depth, size and shape on subgrade reaction of cohessionless soil. Engineering, 5(10), 785–795. https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.510095
European Committee for Standardization. (1992). Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings (EN 1992-1-1).
Gunerathne, S., Seo, H., Lawson, W. D., & Jayawickrama, P. W. (2019). Variational approach for settlement analysis of circular plate on multilayered soil. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 70, 152–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2019.01.009
Jayarajan, P., & Kouzer, K. M. (2015). Analysis of piled raft foundations. Indian Journal of Science, 16(51), 51–57.
Luo, R., Yang, M., & Li, W. (2018). Normalized settlement of piled raft in homogeneous clay. Computers and Geotechnics, 103, 165–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2018.07.023
Mayne, P. W., & Poulos, H. G. (1999). Approximate displacement influence factors for elastic shallow foundation. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 129(6), 453–460. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1999)125:6(453)
Marto, A., Latifi, N., Janbaz, M., Kholghifard, M., Khari, M., Alimohammadi, P., & Banadaki, A. D. (2012). Foundation size effect on modulus of subgrade reaction on sandy soils. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 17, 2523–2530.
Nejad, F. P., & Jaksa, M. B. (2017). Load-settlement behavior modeling of single piles using artificial neural networks and CPT data. Computers and Geotechnics, 89, 9–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2017.04.003
Pasternak, P. L. (1954). Basics of a new method for analyzing foundations on elastic beds using two subgrade reaction coefficients. Moscow “Gosstroyizdat”.
Piskunov, V. G., & Fedorenko, Y. M. (1994) A dynamic method for monitoring layered slabs on elastic beds. Architecture and Construction in Belarus, (5–6), 10–22.
Sadrekarimi, J., & Akbarzad, M. (2009). Comparative study of methods of determination of coefficient of subgrade reaction. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 14, 1–14.
Sall, O. A., Fall, M., Berthaud, Y., & Ba, M. (2013). Influence of the elastic modulus of the soil and concrete foundation on the displacements of a mat foundation. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 3(4), 228–233. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2013.34027
Shadravan, S., Ramseyer, C., & Kang, T. H. K. (2015). A long term restrained shrinkage study of concrete slabs on ground. Engineering Structures, 102, 258–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2015.08.018
Shashkin, K. G. (1999). Using simplified foundation models for coupled analysis of a structure together with its foundation (In Russian) http://www.georec.narod.ru/mag/1999n1/9.htm
Terzaghi, K.V. (1955). Evaluation of coefficient of subgrade reaction. Geotechnique, 5(4), 297–326. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.19184.108.40.2067
The Concrete Society. (2016). Concrete industrial ground floors – A guide to design and construction (Concrete Society Technical Report No. 34).
Timoshenko, S. P., & Goodier, J. N. (1982). Theory of elasticity (3h ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Tomasovicova, D., & Jendzelovsky, N. (2017). Stiffness analysis of the subsoil under industrial floor. Procedia Engineering, 190, 365–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.05.350
Turskis, Z., Urbonas, K., Sližytė, D., Medzvieckas, J., Mackevičius, R., & Šapalas, V. (2020). A novel integrated approach to solve industrial ground floor design problems. Sustainability, 12(12), 4809. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124809
Urbonas, K., Sližytė, D., & Mackevičius, R. (2016). Influence of the pile stiffness on the ground slab behaviour. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 22(5), 690–698. https://doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2016.1176597
Vlasov, V. Z., & Leontiev, N. N. (1960). Beams, plates, and shells on elastic beds. Physmathgiz. (In Russian).
Winkler, E. (1867). Die Lehre von Elastizitat and Festigkeit [on elasticity and fixity]. Prague.
Xu, L., Shao, W., Xue, Y., Cai, F., & Li, Y. (2019). A simplified piecewise-hyperbolic softening model of skin friction for axially loaded piles. Computers and Geotechnics, 108, 7–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compgeo.2018.12.018