Share:


Entrepreneurial orientation as an antecedent to the rapid internationalization of Moroccan SMEs in the women’s entrepreneurship field

    Mohamed Reda Rouijel Affiliation

Abstract

Purpose – This article aims to explore the importance of the international entrepreneurial orientation (IOE) of Moroccan women entrepreneurs (based on innovation, risk-taking and proactivity) in the speed of internationalization of Moroccan SMEs through the niche strategy as an intermediate variable.


Research methodology – We adopted a quantitative study on a sample of 45 Moroccan SMEs to test the research hypotheses using the structural equation method, under Smart-PLS software.


Findings – A significant relationship between the international entrepreneurial orientation of Moroccan women entrepreneurs and the speed of internationalization with the intermediation of the niche strategy. Despite well-calculated steps, innovative products and the courage to take risks on foreign markets, women entrepreneurs tend to adopt niche strategies to be more protected in the internationalization process: both to avoid direct competition from large companies and to speed up the internationalization process Research.


Limitations – Theoretically, it was difficult to operationalize the phenomenon studied, for several reasons: the large number of movements in this approach, the number of variables mobilized. Methodologically, the criteria used to select the sample made it difficult to find more than 45 eligible companies (Exploratory quantitative study).


Originality/Value – This article is one of the very few to combine international and women’s entrepreneurship. Furthermore, this is the first article in the field of women’s international entrepreneurship, as far as I know, that addresses the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the speed of internationalization of exporting SMEs.

Keyword : women’s entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, niche strategy, rapid internationalization, international orientation

How to Cite
Rouijel, M. R. (2024). Entrepreneurial orientation as an antecedent to the rapid internationalization of Moroccan SMEs in the women’s entrepreneurship field. Business, Management and Economics Engineering, 22(1), 138–155. https://doi.org/10.3846/bmee.2024.19929
Published in Issue
May 24, 2024
Abstract Views
149
PDF Downloads
109
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

References

Aloulou, W. (2017). Orientation entrepreneuriale internationale des PME: Émergence du concept, antécédents et modélisation de sa relation avec la performance internationale [International entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs: Emergence of the concept, antecedents and modeling of its relationship with international performance]. Marché et Organisations, 28(1), 35–58. https://doi.org/10.3917/maorg.028.0035

Alsos, G. A., Hytti, U., & Ljunggren, E. (2016). Gender and innovation: An introduction. In Research handbook on gender and innovation (pp. 3–16). Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781783478132.00006

Andersson, S. (2000). The internationalization of the firm from an entrepreneurial perspective. International Studies of Management & Organization, 30(1), 63–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.2000.11656783

Andersson, S., & Wictor, I. (2003). Innovative internationalisation in new firms: Born globals – the Swedish case. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 1(3), 249–275. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024110806241

Anggadwita, G., & Indarti, N. (2023). Women entrepreneurship in the internationalization of SMEs: A bibliometric analysis for future research directions. European Business Review, 35(5), 763–796. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-01-2023-0006

Autio, E., Lummaa, H., & Arenius, P. (2002). Emergent “born globals”: Crafting early and rapid internationalization strategies in technology-based new firms (Working Paper No. 91). Helsinki University of Technology. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Erkko-Autio/publication/228551548_Emergent_Born_globals_Crafting_early_and_rapid_internationalization_strategies_in_technology-based_new_firms/links/0a85e52fceb18ac156000000/Emergent-Born-globals-Crafting-early-and-rapid-internationalization-strategies-in-technology-based-new-firms.pdf

Bacq, S., & Coeurderoy, R. (2010). La théorie de l’«entreprise à internationalisation rapide et précoce» à l’épreuve des faits: Évaluation de l’apport des travaux empiriques à ce champ de recherche [The theory of the “rapid and early internationalization firm” put to the test: Evaluation of the contribution of empirical work to this field of research]. Revue internationale PME, 23(1), 91–124. https://doi.org/10.7202/045746ar

Balambo, M. A., & El Baz, J. (2014, May). De l’intérêt de l’analyse des modèles des équations structurelles par la méthode PLS dans les recherches sur les relations inter organisationnelles: Le cas des recherches en Logistique [On the interest of analyzing structural equation models using the PLS method in research on inter-organizational relations: The case of research in logistics]. In Procedings of the 7th International LOGISTIQUA Conference. Fés, Morocco.

Baronchelli, G., & Cassia, F. (2014). Exploring the antecedents of born-global companies’ international development. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(1), 67–79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-011-0197-9

Beddi, H., Merino, p. B., & Coeurderoy, R. (2012). La stratégie réticulaire: Une compétence distinctive de l’entrepreneur international [Network strategy: A distinctive competency of the international entrepreneur]. Revue de l’Entrepreneuriat, 11(3), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.3917/entre.113.0007

Bell, J. (1995). The internationalization of small computer software firms: A further challenge to “stage” theories. European Journal of Marketing, 29(8), 60–75. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569510097556

Black, W., & Babin, B. J. (2019). Multivariate data analysis: Its approach, evolution, and impact. In B. J. Babin & M. Sarstedt (Eds.), The great facilitator (pp. 121–130). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-06031-2_16

Brush, C. G., De Bruin, A., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender‐aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8–24. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566260910942318

Cavusgil, S. T., & Knight, G. (2015). The born global firm: An entrepreneurial and capabilities perspective on early and rapid internationalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 46, 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1057/jibs.2014.62

Cavusgil, S. T., Zou, S., & Naidu, G. M. (1993). Product and promotion adaptation in export ventures: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 24, 479–506. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490242

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2009). Further explorations of post-crisis communication: Effects of media and response strategies on perceptions and intentions. Public Relations Review, 35(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2008.09.011

Covin, J. G., & Miller, D. (2014). International entrepreneurial orientation: Conceptual considerations, research themes, measurement issues, and future research directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(1), 11–44. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12027

Diop, A., & Soumah, K. (2020). Financing challenges for women entrepreneurs in Africa. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 15(1), 34–52.

Elam, A. B., Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., Baumer, B., Dean, M., & Heavlow, R. (2019). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2018/2019 Women’s entrepreneurship report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association. https://www.gemconsortium.org/file/open?fileId=50405

Elidrissi, D., & Hauch, V. (2012). Entrepreneuriat international et réseaux sociaux pour les PME innovantes: Quelles perceptions pour quelles stratégies? [International entrepreneurship and social networks for innovative SMEs: Which perceptions for which strategies?]. Revue de l’Entrepreneuriat, 11(3), 15–32. https://doi.org/10.3917/entre.113.0015

Fauzi, F., Antoni, D., & Suwarni, E. (2020). Women entrepreneurship in the developing country: The effects of financial and digital literacy on SMEs’ growth. Journal of Governance and Regulation, 9(4), 106–115. https://doi.org/10.22495/jgrv9i4art9

Fernandes, V. (2012). En quoi l’approche PLS est-elle une méthode a (re)-découvrir pour les chercheurs en management? [How is the PLS approach a method to be (re) discovered for management researchers?]. M@n@gement, 15(1), 102–123. https://doi.org/10.3917/mana.151.0102

Fornell, C. (1982). A second generation of multivariate analysis: Vol. 2. Measurement and evaluation. Praeger Publishers.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980

Gerschewski, S., Rose, E. L., & Lindsay, V. J. (2015). Understanding the drivers of international performance for born global firms: An integrated perspective. Journal of World Business, 50(3), 558–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2014.09.001

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414–433. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-011-0261-6

Hennart, J. F. (2014). The accidental internationalists: A theory of born globals. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(1), 117–135. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12076

Henseler, J., & Chin, W. W. (2010). A comparison of approaches for the analysis of interaction effects between latent variables using partial least squares path modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 17(1), 82–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510903439003

Janovac, T., Jovanović, V., Radanov, P., & Virijević Jovanović, S. (2021). Woman’s entrepreneurship – female participation in loss-making SMEs. Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci: Časopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu, 39(1), 39–58. https://doi.org/10.18045/zbefri.2021.1.39

Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. -E. (2015). The Uppsala internationalization process model revisited: From liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. In M. Forsgen, U. Holm, & J. Johanson (Eds.), Knowledge, networks and power (pp. 33–59). Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137508829_7

Jones, M. V., & Coviello, N. E. (2005). Internationalisation: Conceptualising an entrepreneurial process of behaviour in time. Journal of International Business Studies, 36, 284–303. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400138

Jones, M. V., Coviello, N., & Tang, Y. K. (2011). International entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(6), 632–659. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2011.04.001

Julien, P.-A. (1995). New technologies and technological information in small businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(6), 459–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(95)00084-L

Knight, G. A., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2004). Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm. Journal of International Business Studies, 35, 124–141. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400071

Knight, G. (2000). Entrepreneurship and marketing strategy: The SME under globalization. Journal of International Marketing, 8(2), 12–32. https://doi.org/10.1509/jimk.8.2.12.19620

Kobeissi, N. (2010). Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy implications. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 8, 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10843-010-0045-y

Lacroux A. (2009). L’analyse des modèles de relations structurelles par la méthode PLS: Une approche émergente dans la recherche quantitative en GRH [Analyzing structural relationship models using the PLS method: An emerging approach in quantitative HRM research]. XXème congrès de l’AGRH, 9. Toulouse.

Laghzaoui, S. (2009). Internationalisation des PME: Apports d’une analyse en termes de ressources et compétences [Internationalisation of SMEs: Contributions of an analysis in terms of resources and skills]. Revue management & avenir, 22(2), 52–69. https://doi.org/10.3917/mav.022.0052

Li, E. L., Zhou, L., & Wu, A. (2017). The supply-side of environmental sustainability and export performance: The role of knowledge integration and international buyer involvement. International Business Review, 26(4), 724–735. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2017.01.002

Loscocco, K., & Bird, S. R. (2012). Gendered paths: Why women lag behind men in small business success. Work and Occupations, 39(2), 183–219. https://doi.org/10.1177/0730888412444282

Lu, J. W., & Beamish, P. W. (2001). The internationalization and performance of SMEs. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6–7), 565–586. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.184

Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 429–451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(00)00048-3

Madsen, T. K., & Servais, P. (1997). The internationalization of born globals: An evolutionary process? International Business Review, 6(6), 561–583. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(97)00032-2

Mazanec, J. A., Janjuha-Jivraj, S., & Lam, A. (2018). Women and international entrepreneurship: A systematic literature review. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 16, 206–255.

McDougall, P. P., Shane, S., & Oviatt, B. M. (1994). Explaining the formation of international new ventures: The limits of theories from international business research. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(6), 469–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(94)90017-5

McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (1996). New venture internationalization, strategic change, and performance: A follow-up study. Journal of Business Venturing, 11(1), 23–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(95)00081-X

McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship: The intersection of two research paths. The Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 902–906.

McDougall, P. P. (1989). International versus domestic entrepreneurship: New venture strategic behavior and industry structure. Journal of Business Venturing, 4(6), 387–400. https://doi.org/10.1016/0883-9026(89)90009-8

Moen, Ø., & Servais, P. (2002). Born global or gradual global? Examining the export behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of International Marketing, 10(3), 49–72. https://doi.org/10.1509/jimk.10.3.49.19540

Minniti, M., & Naudé, W. (2010). What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries? The European Journal of Development Research, 22, 277–293. https://doi.org/10.1057/ejdr.2010.17

Oviatt, B. M. & McDougall, P. P. (1994). Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(1), 45–64. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490193

Oviatt, B. M., & McDougall, P. P. (2005). Defining international entrepreneurship and modeling the speed of internationalization. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5), 537–553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00097.x

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

Nadkarni, S. & Perez, P. D. (2007). Prior conditions and early international commitment: The mediating role of domestic mindset. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(1), 160–176. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400248

Rennie, M. W. (1993). Global competitiveness: Born global. McKinsey Quarterly, (4), 45–52.

Mukasa, E. (2018). Entrepreneurial education for women in Africa: Current status and future directions. Journal of Entrepreneurial Learning, 14(2), 87–105.

Rialp, A., Rialp, J., & Knight, G. A. (2005). The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: What do we know after a decade (1993–2003) of scientific inquiry? International Business Review, 14(2), 147–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2004.04.006

Rouijel, M. R. (2021). The manager’s entrepreneurial orientation as key to the speed of internationalization: The case of small Moroccan SMEs. Revue Management Innovation, 3(1), 119–136. https://doi.org/10.3917/rmi.203.0119

Rouijel, M. R., Achbab, F., & Charef, F. (2019). Early and fast internationalization of SMEs: Case of six Moroccan women entrepreneurs. International Journal of Business and Technology Studies and Research, 1(2), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3560685

Roussel, P., & Wacheux, F. (2005). Management des ressources humaines. Méthodes de recherche en sciences humaines et sociales [Human resources management. Research methods in the humanities and social sciences]. De Boeck Supérieur. https://doi.org/10.3917/dbu.rouss.2005.01

Tang, J., Tang, Z., Marino, L. D., Zhang, Y., & Li, Q. (2008). Exploring an inverted U–shape relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance in Chinese ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 32(1), 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00223.x

Terjesen, S., Patel, P. C., & Solberg, C. A. (2019). Female entrepreneurs in high-growth sectors: What’s the role of cultural and institutional context? Journal of International Business Studies, 50, 1334–1354.

Veilleux, S., & Ferro, L. M. (2010). Entrepreneuriat international: Réflexion sur la structuration d’un champ d’étude en émergence (Cahier de recherche n°: 2010-03). HEC Montréal.

Verbeke, A., & Ciravegna, L. (2018). International entrepreneurship research versus international business research: A false dichotomy? Journal of International Business Studies, 49, 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-018-0154-8

Vinzi, V. E., Chin, W. W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010). Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications. Springer.

Weerawardena, J., Mort, G. S., Liesch, P. W., & Knight, G. (2007). Conceptualizing accelerated internationalization in the born global firm: A dynamic capabilities perspective. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 294–306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.004

World Bank. (2015). Women, business and the law 2016: Getting to equal. https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/810421519921949813-0050022015/original/WomenBusinessandtheLaw2016.pdf

Yalcin, S., & Ozer, S. (2019). The role of female entrepreneurship in economic development: A Case Study from Turkey. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 7(4), 140–155.

Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. (2000). International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity, mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43(5), 925–950.

Zahra, S. A. (2005). A theory of international new ventures: A decade of research. Journal of International Business Studies, 36, 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400118

Zahra, S. A., Petricevic, O., & Luo, Y. (2022). Toward an action-based view of dynamic capabilities for international business. Journal of International Business Studies, 53(4), 583–600. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41267-021-00487-2

Zhang, M., Sarker, S., & Sarker, S. (2013). Drivers and export performance impacts of IT capability in ‘born‐global’ firms: a cross‐national study. Information Systems Journal, 23(5), 419–443. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2575.2012.00404.x

Zhou, L. (2007). The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity and foreign market knowledge on early internationalization. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 281–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.009

Zhou, L., Wu, W. P., & Luo, X. (2007). Internationalization and the performance of born-global SMEs: The mediating role of social networks. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 673–690. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400282

Zucchella, A., Palamara, G., & Denicolai, S. (2007). The drivers of the early internationalization of the firm. Journal of World Business, 42(3), 268–280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2007.04.008