Liquid nitrogen injection into aviation fuel to reduce its flammability and post-impact fire effects
The finite volume method was used to study the characteristic of contaminated aviation fuel with the aim of reducing its flammability and post-impact fire. The flammability levels between pure Jet A-1 and contaminated Jet A-1 are compared using their flashpoints and fire points before and after the introduction of Liquid Nitrogen. Upon heating different mixing ratios (4:1, 3:1, and 2:1), results are analyzed to identify the best volume ratio exhibiting the highest reduction in flammability. Analysis shows that the mixing ratio of 2:1 not only froze but increased the flashpoint of the mixture from (48 ˚C–50 ˚C) to 64 ˚C. For the mixing ratio of 3:1, there was a rise in flashpoint to about 56 ˚C and partial freezing was seen at the topmost surface. At a mixing ratio of 4:1, it was observed that the effect of liquid nitrogen on Jet A-1 was minimal leading to a slight rise in its flash point (50 ˚C). Thus, liquid Nitrogen had a substantial effect on the flammability and flash point of Jet A-1 when mixed in the ratio (2:1) with a freezing time of 30 seconds and an unfreezing time of 17.5 minutes. Hence, Liquid Nitrogen can be used for the flammability reduction of Jet A-1.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Almqvist, E. (2003). History of industrial gases. Springer Science & Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0197-8
Bensyl, D. M., Moran, K., & Conway, G. A. (2001). Factors associated with pilot fatality in work-related aircraft crashes, Alaska, 1990–1999. American Journal of Epidemiology, 154(11), 1037–1042. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/154.11.1037
Bossert, D. E., Morris, S. L., Hallgren, W. F., & Yechout, T. R. (2003). Introduction to aircraft flight mechanics: Performance, static stability, dynamic stability, and classical feedback control. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. https://doi.org/10.2514/4.862069
Burns, M., & Cavage, W. M. (2001). Inerting of a vented aircraft fuel tank test article with nitrogen-enriched air. William J. Hughes Technical Center Atlantic City NJ. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA396168
Chevron. (2007). Technical review on aviation fuels (9891). https://www.chevron.com/-/media/chevron/operations/documents/aviation-tech-review.pdf
Evosevich, B. J., & Jojič, I. (2015). Aircraft fuel tank flammability reduction method and system. European Patent Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2888168B1
Gupta, A. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,114,886. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patents.google.com/patent/US9114886B2/en
Henshaw, D. G., Hurst, D. G., & Pope, N. K. (1953). Structure of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, and argon by neutron diffraction. Physical Review, 92(5), 1229. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.92.1229
Hurley, T. R., & Vandenburg J. M. (2002). Small airplane crashworthiness design guide, simula technologies, Inc., April 12. Simula Technologies. https://agate.niar.wichita.edu/Crashworthiness/WP3.4-034043-036.pdf
Li, G., & Baker, S. P. (1997). Injury patterns in aviation-related fatalities: Implications for preventive strategies. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 18(3), 265–270. https://doi.org/10.1097/00000433-199709000-00007
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. (2004). Pathological aspects and associated biodynamics in aircraft accident investigation. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu
Nigam, P. K., Tenguria, N., & Pradhan, M. K. (2017). Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 9(2), 46–60. https://doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v9i2.5
Stevens, J. B., Sprenger, G., & Austin, M. (2012). State-of-the-art real-time jet fuel quality measurement. In Technology engineering and management in aviation: Advancements and discoveries (pp. 117–128). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-60960-887-3.ch005
Tieszen, S. R. (1997). Post-crash fuel dispersal (No. SAND-97-0488C; CONF-9611152-1). Sandia National Lab (SNL-NM). Albuquerque, NM, United States. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/453472
Tilden, W. A. (1899). A short history of the progress of scientific chemistry in our own times. Longmans, Green and Company.
Transportation Safety Board of Canada. (n.d.). Aviation safety issues investigation report SII A05-01. https://www.tsb.gc.ca/eng/rapports-reports/aviation/etudes-studies/siia0501/siia0501.html
Transportation Safety Board of Canada. (2006). Post-impact fires resulting from small-aircraft accidents. https://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/2696.pdf
Umrath, W. (1974). Cooling bath for rapid freezing in electron microscopy. Journal of Microscopy, 101(1), 103–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2818.1974.tb03871.x
Wikipedia contributors. (2023a). Air Canada Flight 621. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Air_Canada_Flight_621&oldid=1173411731
Wikipedia contributors. (2023b). Jet fuel. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jet_fuel&oldid=1172451056
Wiegmann, D. A., & Taneja, N. (2003). Analysis of injuries among pilots involved in fatal general aviation airplane accidents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 35(4), 571–577. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00037-4