Experimental study of physical-chemical properties of advanced alcohol-to-jet fuels

    Anna Yakovlieva   Affiliation
    ; Sergii Boichenko   Affiliation
    ; Vasyl Boshkov   Affiliation
    ; Lukaš Korba Affiliation
    ; Marián Hocko Affiliation


The paper presents an analytical review of technological processes of alternative jet fuel production from alcohols and experimental results on the study of its physical-chemical properties. State-of-the-art in the sphere of civil aviation development within the framework of sustainable development and minimization of transport’s negative impact on the environment is presented. The development and implementation of sustainable aviation fuels are considered the main measure for reaching carbon-neutral growth. Two technologies of alcohol-to-jet fuel production are considered, and possible feedstock and processing pathways are presented. Physical-chemical properties of two kinds of alcohol-to-jet fuels are studied experimentally, as well as the properties of conventional jet fuels blended with alternative ones. It is shown that the physical-chemical properties of jet fuels blended with alcohol-to-jet component containing aromatics are very close to conventional jet fuels. All of the studied fuel blends with alcohol-to-jet components completely satisfy the requirements of specifications. Basing on the received results it is expected that alcohol-to-jet component containing aromatics may be successfully used for blending with conventional jet fuel and used as a drop-in fuel.

Keyword : jet fuel, sustainable aviation fuel, alcohol-to-jet, synthesized paraffinic kerosene, synthesized kerosene with aromatics, technological process, physical-chemical properties

How to Cite
Yakovlieva, A., Boichenko, S., Boshkov, V., Korba, L., & Hocko, M. (2023). Experimental study of physical-chemical properties of advanced alcohol-to-jet fuels. Aviation, 27(1), 1–13.
Published in Issue
Feb 23, 2023
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Achinas, S., Margry, S., & Euverink, G. J. W. (2021). A technological outlook of biokerosene production. In Applied biotechnology reviews, sustainable biofuels (pp. 225–246). Academic Press.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2015a). Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure (ASTM D86-15). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2015b). Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity) (ASTM D445-15a). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2011a). Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives (ASTM D4054-09 S). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2011b). Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels (ASTM D1655-11b). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2011c). Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons (ASTM D7655-11a). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2016). Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester (ASTM D93-16). ASTM.

American Society for Testing and Materials. (2009). Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter (ASTM D4052-15). ASTM.

Anuar, A., Undavalli, V. K., Khandelwal, B., & Blakey, S. (2021). Effect of fuels, aromatics and preparation methods on seal swell. The Aeronautical Journal, 125(1291), 1542–1565.

Bann, S. J., Malina, R., Staples, M. D., Suresh, P., Pearlson, M., Tyner, W. E., Hileman, J. I., & Barrett, S. (2017). The costs of production of alternative jet fuel: A harmonized stochastic assessment. Bioresource Technology, 227, 179–187.

Boichenko, S., & Yakovlieva, A. (2020). Energy efficient renewable feedstock for alternative motor fuels production: Solutions for Ukraine. In V. Babak, V. Isaienko, & A. Zaporozhets (Eds.), Systems, decision and control in energy I (pp. 247–259). Springer.

Boichenko, S., Zubenko, S., Konovalov, S., & Yakovlieva, A. (2020). Synthesis of Camelina oil ethyl esters as components of jet fuels. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 1(6(103), 42–49.

Brooks, K. P., Snowden-Swan, L. J., Jones, S. B., Butcher, M. G., Lee, G.-S. J., Anderson, D. M., Frye, J. G., Holladay, J. E., Owen, J., Harmon, L., Burton, F., Palou-Rivera, I., Plaza, J., Handler, R., & Shonnard, D. (2016). Low-carbon aviation fuel through the alcohol to jet pathway. In Ch. J. Chuck (Ed.), Biofuels for aviation (pp. 109–150). Academic Press.

Cecere, D., Giacomazzi, E., & Ingenito, A. (2014). A review on hydrogen industrial aerospace applications. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(20), 10731–10747.

Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative. (2022, May 6). Fuel qualification.

De Klerk, A. (2016). Aviation turbine fuels through the Fischer–Tropsch process. In Ch. J. Chuck (Ed.), Biofuels for aviation (pp. 241–259). Academic Press.

Dessens, O., Köhler, M. O., Rogers, H. L., Jones, R. L., & Pyle, J. A. (2014). Aviation and climate change. Transport Policy, 34, 14–20.

Fu, C., Li, Z., Jia, C., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., Yi, C., & Xie, S. (2021). Recent advances on bio-based isobutanol separation. Energy Conversion and Management: X, 10, 100059.

Geleynse, S., Brandt, K., Garcia-Perez, M., Wolcott, M., & Zhang, X. (2018) the alcohol-to-jet conversion pathway for drop-in biofuels: Techno-economic evaluation. ChemSusChem, 11(21), 3728.

Governmental Standard. (2018). Motor fuels. Methods for measuring could point and freezing point (GOST 5066-2018 (ISO 3013-74)). GOST.

Gnansounou, E., & Dauriat, A. (2010). Techno-economic analysis of lignocellulosic ethanol: A review. Bioresources and Technology, 101(13), 4980–4991.

Han, G. B., Jang, J. H., Ahn. M. H., & Jung, B. H. (2019). Recent application of bio-alcohol: bio-jet fuel. In Alcohol fuels – current technologies and future prospect (pp. 1–14). IntechOpen.

Iakovlieva, A., Vovk, O., Boichenko, S., Lejda, K., & Kuszewski, H. (2016). Physical-chemical properties of jet fuel blends with components derived from rapeseed oil. Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 10(4), 485–492.

Konovalov, S., Patrylak, L., Zubenko, S., Okhrimenko, M., Yakovenko, A., Levterov, A., & Avramenko, A. (2021). Alkali synthesis of fatty acid butyl and ethyl esters and comparative bench motor testing of blended fuels on their basis. Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 15(1), 105–117.

Kulik, N. S., Aksenov A. F., Yanovskii L. S., Boichenko S. V., & Zaporozhets A. I. (2015). Aviation chemmotology: Fuels for jet engines. In Theoretical and engineering fundamentals of use. NAU. (in Russian)

Kurdel, P., Češkovič, M., Gecejová, N., Adamčík, F., & Gamcová, M. (2022). Local control of unmanned air vehicles in the mountain area. Drones, 6, 54.

Lakshmi, N. M., Binod, P., Sindhu, R., Awasthic, M. K., & Pandey, A. (2021). Microbial engineering for the production of isobutanol: Current status and future directions. Bioengineered, 12(2), 12308–12321.

Lee, D. S., Fahey, D. W., Forster, P. M., Newton, P. J., Wit, R. C., Lim, L. L., Owen, B., & Sausen, R. (2009). Aviation and global climate change in the 21st century. Atmospheric Environment, 43(22–23), 3520–3537.

Lei, H., & Khandelwal, B. (2021). Hydrogen fuel for aviation. In Aviation fuels (pp. 237–270). Academic Press.

Lew, L., & Biddle, T. (2014). Evaluation of ARA Catalytic Hydrothermolysis (CH) Fuel (Final Report FR-27652-2a). Pratt & Whitney.

Li, L., Coppola, E., Rine, J., Miller, J. L., & Walker, D. (2010). Catalytic hydrothermal conversion of triglycerides to non-ester biofuels. Energy Fuels, 24(2), 1305–1315.

Neuling, U., & Kaltschmitt, M. (2018). Biokerosene from vegetable oils – technologies and processes. In Biokerosene (pp. 475–496). Springer-Verlag.

Panchuk, M., Kryshtopa, S., & Panchuk, A. (2020). Innovative technologies for the creation of a new sustainable, environmentally neutral energy production in Ukraine. In International Conference on Decision Aid Sciences and Application, DASA 2020 (pp. 732–737). IEEE.

Petrescu, R. V. V., Machín, A., Fontánez, K., Arango, J. C., Márquez, F. M., & Petrescu, F. I. T. (2020). Hydrogen for aircraft power and propulsion. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 45(41), 20740–20764.

Pires, A., Han, Y., Kramlich, J., & Garcia-Perez, M. (2018). Chemical composition and fuel properties of alternative jet fuels. BioResources, 13(2), 2632–2657.

Rahmes, T. F., Kinder, J. D., Henry, T. M., Crenfeldt, G., LeDuc, G. F., Zombanakis, G. P., Abe, Y., Lambert, D. M., Lewis, C., & Juenger, J. A. (2009). Sustainable bio-derived synthetic paraffinic kerosene (Bio-SPK) jet fuel flights and engine tests program results (Report No AIAA). Aerospace Research Central.

Ratner, S. V., Yuri, C., & Hien, N. H. (2019). Prospects of transition of air transportation to clean fuels: Economic and environmental management aspects. International Energy Journal, 19(3).

Seber, G., Malina, R., Pearlson, M. N., Olcay, H., Hileman, J. I., & Barrett, S. R. H. (2014). Environmental and economic assessment of producing hydroprocessed jet and diesel fuel from waste oils and tallow. Biomass and Bioenergy, 67, 108–118.

Silveira, M. H. L., Vanelli, B. A., & Chandel, A. K. (2018). Second generation ethanol production: Potential biomass feedstock, biomass deconstruction, and chemical platforms for process valorization. In Advances in sugarcane biorefinery (pp. 135–152). Elsevier.

Stephen, J. L., & Periyasamy, B. (2018). Innovative developments in biofuels production from organic waste materials: A review. Fuel, 214, 623–633.

Van Dyk, S., & Saddler, J. (2021). Progress in commercialization of biojet/Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF): Technologies, potential and challenges. In IEA Bioenergy Task 39. Technology Collaboration Programme.

Wang, W.-Ch., Tao, L., Markham, J., Zhang, Y., Tan, E., Batan, L., Warner, E., & Biddy, M. (2016). Review of biojet fuel conversion technologies (Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-66291). National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Yakovlieva, A., Boichenko, S., Lejda, K., & Vovk, O. (2019a). Modification of jet fuels composition with renewable bio-additives. Center for education literature.

Yakovlieva, A., Boichenko, S., & Zaremba J. (2019b, 28–29 November). Improvement of air transport environmental safety by implementing alternative jet fuels. In Modern Safety Technologies in Transportation (MOSATT) (pp. 146–151). Kosice.

Yamada, R., Taniguchi, N., Tanaka, T., Ogino, C., Fukuda, H., & Kondo, A. (2011). Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials using a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with optimized cellulase expression. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 4, 8.

Yao, G., Staples, M. D., Malina, R., & Tyner, W. E. (2017). Stochastic techno-economic analysis of alcohol-to-jet fuel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts, 10, 18.

Zschocke, A., Scheuermann, S., & Ortner, J. (2012). High Biofuel Blends in Aviation (HBBA) (Final Report ENER/C2/2012/ 420-1). Deutsche Lufthansa AG & Wehrwissenschaftliches Institut für Werk- und Betriebsstoffe.