The connection between an airport type and revenue structure at Baltic States airports

    Kristine Uzule   Affiliation
    ; Irina Kuzmina-Merlino   Affiliation


Airports are not only engines of transportation of passengers and cargo, but also commercial enterprises offering services far beyond transportation, which is why their revenues are formed by both aeronautical and non-aeronautical sales. Aeronautical revenues of some large European airports are higher than non-aeronautical revenues, whereas some regional and secondary European airports demonstrate the opposite trend. The aim of this research was to determine if there is a connection between an airport type and the ratio of aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues at Baltic States airports in way that is consistent with the previous research. The aim was attained in three stages. The first, the definitions of the main and secondary airports were constructed via discourse analysis. The second, the structure of airport revenues of the selected Baltic States airports was analysed. The third, conclusions were made regarding a connection between an airport type and the revenue structure of these Baltic States airports. On the one hand, the research results suggested there might be a connection between an airport type and the revenue structure although this question requires further research, and on the other hand, the financial analysis showed that airports with a higher share of non-aeronautical revenues than aeronautical revenues were more resilient to crises.

Keyword : airport types, discourse analysis, financial analysis, aeronautical revenues, non-aeronautical revenues

How to Cite
Uzule, K., & Kuzmina-Merlino, I. (2022). The connection between an airport type and revenue structure at Baltic States airports. Aviation, 26(4), 183–194.
Published in Issue
Nov 28, 2022
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adikariwattage, V., De Barros, A. G., Wisasinghe, S. C., & Ruwanpura, J. (2012). Airport classification criteria based on passenger characteristics and terminal size. Journal of Air Transport Management, 24, 36–41.

Airport Council International. (2018). World report December: News and events from the voice of the world’s airports.

Airport Council International. (2019). Annual report for 2018. Montreal, Canada.

Airports Council International. (2020). ACI report shows the importance of the airport industry to the global economy.

Airport Liepāja. (n.d.). Vēsture.

Albayrak, M. B. K., Ozcan, I. C., Can, R., & Dobruszkes, F. (2020). The determinants of air passenger traffic at Turkish airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 86, 101818.

Alves, C. J. P., Da Silva, E. J., Muller, C., Borile, G. M. R., Guterres, M. X., Arraut, E. M., Peres, M. S., & Dos Santos, R. J. (2020). Towards an objective decision-making framework for regional airport site selection. Journal of Air Transport Management, 89, 101888.

Ballart, X., & Guell, C. (2015). Airport ownership and regulation in Spain: Explaining the resistance to change. Journal of Air Transport Management, 47, 112–118.

Battal, U., & Bakir, M. (2017). The current situation and change in airport revenues: Research on the Europe’s five busiest airports. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(7), 287–303.

Bergantino, A. S., Capurso, M., & Hess, S. (2020). Modelling regional accessibility to airports using discrete choice models: An application to a system of regional airports. Transportation Research Part A, 132, 855–871.0

Breindenbach, P. (2020). Ready for take-off? The economic effects of regional airport expansions in Germany. Regional Studies, 54(8), 1084–1097.

Cervinka, M. (2019). Is a regional airports business a way to make a profit? Transportation Research Procedia, 43, 84–92.

Cattaneo, M., Malighetti, P., & Percoco, M. (2018). The impact of intercontinental air accessibility on local economies: Evidence from the de-hubbing of Malpensa airport. Transport Policy, 61, 96–105.

Chaouk, M., Pagliari, R., & Moxon, R. (2020). The impact of national macro-environment exogenous variables on airport efficiency. Journal of Air Transport Management, 82, 101740.

Choo, Y. Y. (2014). Factors affecting aeronautical charges at major US airports. Transportation Research Part A, 62, 54–62.

Choo, Y. Y., Corbo, L., & Want, K. (2018). Joint impact of airline market structure and airport ownership on airport market power and profit margin. Transport Policy, 72, 67–78.

Christensen, L., Nielsen, O. A., Rich, J., & Knudsen, M. (2020). Optimizing airport infrastructure for a country: The case of Greenland. Research in Transportation Economics, 79, 100773.

Christidis, P. (2016). Four shades of Open Skies: European Union and four main external partners. Journal of Transport Geography, 50, 105–114.

Davis, A. R. (2019). Thematic roles. In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger, & P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics – lexical structures and adjectives (pp. 99–125). De Gruyter Mouton.

Debyser, A. (2016). Airports in the EU: In-depth analysis. EPRS, European Parliamentary Research Service.

Dobruszkes, F. (2013). The geography of European low-cost airline networks: A contemporary analysis. Journal of Transport Geography, 28, 75–88.

Eurocontrol. (2019). Comparison of air traffic management-related operational performance: U.S. / Europe. Eurocontrol.

European Commission. (2005). Community guidelines on financing of airports and start-up aid to airlines departing from regional airports. Official Journal of the European Union, 312/01, 1–14.

Fageda, X. (2014). What hurts the dominant airlines at hub airports? Transportation Research Part E, 70, 177–189.

Fasone, V., Kofler, L., & Scuderi, R. (2016). Business performance of airports: Non-aeronautical revenues and their determinants. Journal of Air Transport Management, 53, 35–45.

Federal Aviation Administration. (2022). Airport categories.

Fernandes, V. A., Pacheco, R. R., Fernandes, E., & Da Silva, W. R. (2019). Regional change in the hierarchy of Brazilian airports 2007–2016. Journal of Transport Geography, 79, 102467.

Florido-Benitez, L. (2021). Malage Costa del Sol airport and its new conceptualization of hinterland. Tourism Critiques: Practice and Theory, 2(2), 195–221.

Fragoudaki, A., & Giokas, D. (2020). Airport efficiency in the dawn of privatization: The case of Greece. Journal of Air Transport Management, 86, 101821.

Fuerst, F., Gross, S., & Klose, U. (2011). The sky is the limit? The determinants and constraints of European airports commercial revenues. Journal of Air Transport Management, 17(5), 278–283.

Fuerst, F., & Gross, S. (2018). The commercial performance of global airports. Transport Policy, 61(C), 123–131.

Gao, Y., & Sobieralski, J. B. (2021). Spatial and operational factors behind passenger yield of U.S. nonhub primary airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 90, 101967.

Gutierrez, E., & Lozano, S. (2016). Efficiency assessment and output maximization possibilities of European small and medium sized airports. Research in Transportation Economics, 56, 3–14.

Halpern, N., Mwesiumo, D., Suau-Sanchez, Budd, T., & Brathen, S. (2021). Ready for digital transformation? The effect of organizational readiness, innovation, airport size and ownership on digital change at airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 90, 101949.

Han, H., Yu, J., & Kim, W. (2018). Airport shopping – an emerging non-aviation business: Triggers of traveler loyalty. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 35(7), 835–845.

Harley, G., Timmis, A., & Budd, L. (2020). Factors affecting environmental practice adoption at small European airports: An investigation. Transport Research Part D, 88, 102572.

Heathrow. (2020). Annual report and financial statements 2020.

Heathrow. (2018). Heathrow airport limited. Annual report and financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2018.

Heathrow. (2017). Heathrow airport limited. Annual report and financial statements for the year ended 31 December 2017.

Hotle, S., & Mumbower, S. (2021). The impact of COVID-10 on domestic U.S. air travel operations and commercial airport service. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 9, 100277.

Huang, W., Lin, Y., Lin, B., & Zhao, L. (2019). Modeling and predicting the occupancy in a China hub airport terminal using Wi-Fi data. Energy and Buildings, 203, 109439.

International Civil Aeronautical Organization. (2015). State of airport economics.

Jiang, Y., Lu, J., Feng, R., & Yang, Z. (2020). Determinants of wave-system structures of network airlines at hub airports. Journal of Air Transport Management, 88, 101871.

Jimenez, E., & Suau-Sanchez, P. (2020). Reinterpreting the role of primary and secondary airports in low-cost carrier expansion in Europe. Journal of Transport Geography, 88, 102847.

Karanki, F., Lim, S. H., & Choi, B. J. (2020). The determinants of aeronautical charges of U.S. airports: A spatial analysis. Journal of Air Transport Management, 86, 101825.

Kazda, A., Turiak, M., & Gotz, K. (2020). Airport typology for LCC policy changes: A European perspective. Aeronautical, 24(3), 90–98.

Kauno oro uostas. (2018). Traffic report 2018.

Keumi, C., & Murakami, H. (2012). The role of schedule delays on passengers’ choice of access modes: A case study of Japan’s international hub airports. Transportation Research Part E, 48, 1023–1031.

Klophaus, R., Merkert, R., & Lordan, O. (2021). Mesh network as a competitive advantage for European LCCs: An alternative topology to hub-and-spoke for selling online connections. Transport Policy, 106, 196–204.

Kutlu, L., & McCarthy, P. (2016). US airport ownership, efficiency, and heterogeneity. Transportation Research Part E, 89, 117–132.

Lithuanian airports. (2020). Annual activity report for the year 2020.

Lithuanian airports. (2022). About Lithuanian airports.

Liu, M.-B., & Liao, S.-M. (2018). A case study on the underground rapid transport system (URTS) for the international airport hubs: Planning, application and lessons learnt. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 80, 114–122.

Lordan, O., & Sallan, J. M. (2017). Analyzing the multilevel structure of the European airport network. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, 30(2), 554–560.

Lordan, O., & Sallan, J. M. (2019). Core and critical cities of global region airport networks. Physica A, 513, 724–733.

Malighetti, P., Paleari, S., & Redondi, R. (2009). Airport classification and functionality within the European network. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 7(1), 182–196.

Martin, J. C., Marin-Domingo, L., Lohmann, G., & Spasojevic, B. (2019). The role of travel patterns in airport duty-free shopping satisfaction: A case study from an Australian regional airport. Journal of Air Transport Management, 80, 101691.

Mashhoodi, B., & Van Timmeren, A. (2020). Airport location in European airport regions: Five typologies based on the regional road network and land use data. Data in Brief, 29, 105317.

Matsumoto, H., & Domae, K. (2018). The effects of new international airports and air-freight integrator’s hubs on the mobility of cities in urban hierarchies: A case study in East and Southeast Asia. Journal of Air Transport Management, 71, 160–166.

Minato, N., & Morimoto, R. (2011). Designing the commercial sustainability of unprofitable regional airports using system dynamics analysis. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 1, 80–90.

Mueller, F., & Aravazhi, A. (2020). A new generalized travel cost based connectivity metric applied to Scandinavian airports. Transportation Research Part D, 81, 102280.

Niewiadomski, P. (2020). Agentisation of airports and the pursuit of regional development in Poland. European Urban and Regional Studies, 27(1), 171–188.

Nommik, A., & Antov, D. (2020). European regional airport: Factors influencing efficiency. Transport and Telecommunication, 21(3), 211–220.

Nommik, A., & Antov, D. (2017). Modelling regional airport capacity. Procedia Engineering, 178, 427–434.

Pacagnella Junior, A. C., Hollaender, P. S., Mazzanati, G. V., & Bortoletto, W. W. (2021). Efficiency drivers of international airports: A worldwide benchmarking study. Journal of Air Transport Management, 90, 1–12.

Pagliari, R., & Graham, A. (2019). An exploratory analysis of the effects of ownership change on airport competition. Transport Policy, 78, 76–85.

Paraschi, E. P., Georgopoulos, A., & Papatheodoru, A. (2020). Abiotic determinants of airport performance: Insights from a global survey. Transport Policy, 85, 33–53.

Paraschi, E. P., Georgopoulos, A., & Kaldis, P. (2019). Airport business excellence model: A holistic performance management system. Tourism Management, 72, 352–372.

Plitz, C., Voltes-Dorta, A., & Suau-Sanchez, P. (2018). A comparative analysis of hub connections of European and Asian airports against Middle Eastern hubs in intercontinental markets. Journal of Air Transport Management, 66, 1–12.

Postorino, M. N., & Pratico, F. G. (2012). An application of the multi-criteria decision-making analysis to a regional multi-airport system. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 4, 44–52.

Puls, R., & Lentz, C. (2018). Retail concessions at European airports: Commercial strategies to improve non-aeronautic revenue from leisure travellers. Journal of Air Transport Management, 71, 243–249.

Reece, D., & Robinson, T. (2018). Airport ownership and regulation. In IATA guidance booklet. IATA and Deloitte.

Remencova, T., & Sedlackova, A. N. (2021). The approach to evaluation of the economic and operational indicators of selected regional airports in the countries of Central Europe. Transportation Research Procedia, 59, 154–165.

Riga airport. (n.d.). Annual report.

RIX. (2018). Gada Grāmata.

Rotondo, F. (2019). An explorative analysis to identify airport business models. Research in Transportation Business and Management, 33, 100417.

Soylu, B., & Katip, H. (2019). A multiobjective hub-airport location problem for an airline network design. European Journal of Operational Research, 277(2), 412–425.

Suau-Sanchez, P., Voltes-Dorta, A., & Rodriguez-Deniz, H. (2015). Regulatory airport classification in the US: The role of international markets. Transport Policy, 37, 157–166.

Sydow, J., Wirth, C., & Helfren, M. (2020). Strategy emergence in service delivery networks: Network-oriented human resource management practices at German airports. Human Resource Management Journal, 30(4), 566–585.

Takebayashi, M. (2018). Managing airport charges under the multiple hub network with high-speed rail: Considering capacity and gateway function. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 112, 108–123.

Tallinn airport. (2018). Annual report 2018.

Tallinn airport. (n.d.). Annual reports.

Tveter, E. (2017). The effect of airports on regional development: Evidence from the construction of regional airports in Norway. Research in Transportation Economics, 63, 50–58.

Uzule, K. (2021). Factors affecting the revenue structure at Baltic airports [unpublished Master’s thesis, Transport and Telecommunication Institute]. Riga.

Vilniaus oro uostas. (2018). Traffic report 2018.

Vilnius airport. (2021). Flights schedule.

VĮ Lietuvos oro uostai. (2020). Įmonės 2019 metų audituotos finansinės ataskaitos, parengtos pagal tarptautinius finansinės atskaitomybės standartus, priimtus taikyti Europos sąjungoje.

Wong, W.-H., Zhang, A., Cheung, T. K.-Y., & Chu, J. (2019). Examination of low-cost carriers’ development at secondary airports using a comprehensive world airport classification. Journal of Air Transport Management, 78, 96–105.

Zhang, A., Wan, Y., & Yang, H. (2019). Impacts of high-speed rail on airlines, airports and regional economies: A survey of recent research. Transport Policy, 81, A1–A19.