An integrated model of destination advocacy and its direct and mediating effects on destination revisit intention

    Md. Alamgir Hossain   Affiliation
    ; Abul Kalam   Affiliation
    ; Md. Shakhawat Hossain   Affiliation
    ; Mst Nilima Sarmin   Affiliation
    ; Md. Nuruzzaman   Affiliation


Purpose – Purpose of the study is to build an integrated model of tourist destination advocacy explaining how tourists’ revisit intention is affected by its direct and mediating effects, integrated with destination experience, tourist satisfaction, and destination image.

Design/methodology/approach – Data is collected online using a self-administered structured questionnaire tool, and the survey is hosted in a Google Doc. SPSS and SEM-Amos are used to analyze the data (443 samples) after successful data cleaning and outlier elimination.

Findings – All of the hypotheses were shown to be true in this investigation, with the exception of two. The findings confirmed that tourists’ destination experiences improve tourists’ satisfaction, destination advocacy and destination image but not destination revisit intention. The likelihood of revisit intention is significantly influenced by destination satisfaction and image. Furthermore, destination satisfaction, destination advocacy and destination image significantly mediate the link between destination experience and revisit intention.

Originality/value – This study contributes to the existing literature on consumer behavior in tourist destinations, and would guide practitioners towards effective destination management.

Research limitations – Due to the lack of control factors on the relationship between all predecessors, destination revisit intentions, and all of the data gathered from domestic visitors, the current study may have limited the applicability of its findings. Therefore, additional research is necessary to validate these results across a variety of samples in order to draw generalizations.

Keyword : destination experience, destination satisfaction, destination advocacy, destination image and destination revisit intention

How to Cite
Hossain, M. A., Kalam, A., Hossain, M. S., Sarmin, M. N., & Nuruzzaman, M. (2022). An integrated model of destination advocacy and its direct and mediating effects on destination revisit intention. Business, Management and Economics Engineering, 20(2), 286–311.
Published in Issue
Nov 14, 2022
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Abbas, M., Gao, Y., & Shah, S. S. H. (2018). CSR and customer outcomes: The mediating role of customer engagement. Sustainability, 10(11), 4243.

Abbasi, G. A., Kumaravelu, J., Goh, Y.-N., & Dara Singh, K. S. (2021). Understanding the intention to revisit a destination by expanding the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Spanish Journal of Marketing – ESIC, 25(2), 282–311.

Addis, M., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). On the conceptual link between mass customisation and experiential consumption: An explosion of subjectivity. Journal of Consumer Behaviour: An International Research Review, 1(1), 50–66.

Afshardoost, M., & Eshaghi, M. S. (2020). Destination image and tourist behavioural intentions: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 81.

Akhtar, N., Sun, J., Ahmad, W., & Akhtar, M. N. (2019). The effect of non-verbal messages on Muslim tourists’ interaction adaptation: A case study of Halal restaurants in China. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 11, 10–22.

Aliman, N. K., Hashim, S. M., Wahid, S. D. M., & Harudin, S. (2016). Tourists’ satisfaction with a destination: An investigation on visitors to Langkawi Island. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 8(3), 173–188.

An, S., Suh, J., & Eck, T. (2019). Examining structural relationships among service quality, perceived value, satisfaction and revisit intention for airbnb guests. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 19(3), 145–165.

Aqueveque, C. (2006). Extrinsic cues and perceived risk: The influence of consumption situation. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(5), 237–247.

Archimi, C. S., Reynaud, E., Yasin, H. M., & Bhatti, Z. A. (2018). How perceived corporate social responsibility affects employee cynicism: The mediating role of organizational trust. Journal of Business Ethics, 151(4), 907–921.

Arndt, J. (1967). Role of product-related conversations in the diffusion of a new product. Journal of Marketing Research, 4(3), 291–295.

Atmari, N. V., & Putri, V. W. (2021). The effect of tourism experience on revisit intention through destination image and satisfaction. Management Analysis Journal, 10(1), 85–94.

Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897.

Battour, M. M., Battor, M. M., & Ismail, M. (2012). The mediating role of tourist satisfaction: A study of Muslim tourists in Malaysia. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(3), 279–297.

Bilro, R. G., Loureiro, S. M. C., & Guerreiro, J. (2019). Exploring online customer engagement with hospitality products and its relationship with involvement, emotional states, experience and brand advocacy. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 28(2), 147–171.

Breiby, M. A., & Slåtten, T. (2018). The role of aesthetic experiential qualities for tourist satisfaction and loyalty. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(1), 1–14.

Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105–114.

Brysha, B. (2013). A-to-Z WOM, part 1: A brief history of word of mouth marketing. The Word of Mouth Marketing Association.

Chen, H., Bernard, S., & Rahman, I. (2019). Greenwashing in hotels: A structural model of trust and behavioral intentions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 326–335.

Chen, N. C., Dwyer, L., & Firth, T. (2018). Residents’ place attachment and word-of-mouth behaviours: A tale of two cities. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 36, 1–11.

Chen, N., Dwyer, L., & Firth, T. (2014). Effect of dimensions of place attachment on residents’ word-of-mouth behavior. Tourism Geographies, 16(5), 826–843.

Chen, X., Cheng, Z., & Kim, G.-B. (2020). Make it memorable: Tourism experience, fun, recommendation and revisit intentions of chinese outbound tourists. Sustainability, 12(5), 1904.

Chi, C. G. Q., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624–636.

Crompton, J. L. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.

Dagustani, D., Kartini, D., Oesman, Y. M., & Kaltum, U. (2018). Destination image of tourist: Effect of travel motivation and memorable tourism experience. Etikonomi, 17(2), 307–318.

Dann, G. M. (1977). Anomie, ego-enhancement and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 4(4), 184–194.

Della Corte, V., Sciarelli, M., Cascella, C., & Del Gaudio, G. (2015). Customer satisfaction in tourist destination: The case of tourism offer in the city of Naples. Journal of Investment and Management, 4(1–1), 39–50.

Dobni, D., &Zinkhan, G. M. (1990). In search of brand image: A foundation analysis. ACR North American Advances, 17, 110–119.

Ekinci, Y., Sirakaya-Turk, E., & Preciado, S. (2013). Symbolic consumption of tourism destination brands. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 711–718.

Elahi, A., Moradi, E., & Saffari, M. (2020). Antecedents and consequences of tourists’ satisfaction in sport event: Mediating role of destination image. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 21(2), 123–154.

Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time, and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 10–16.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gholipour Soleimani, A., & Einolahzadeh, H. (2018). The influence of service quality on revisit intention: The mediating role of WOM and satisfaction (Case study: Guilan travel agencies). Cogent Social Sciences, 4(1), 1560651.

Giao, H. N. K., Ngan, N. T. K., Phuc, N. P. H., Tuan, H. Q., Hong, H. K., Anh, H. D. T., Nhu, D. T. H., & Lan, N. T. (2020). How destination image factors affect domestic tourists revisit intention to Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Vietnam. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 7(6), 209–220.

Haider, M. Z., Hossain, T., Siddiqui, O. I., & Islam, M. S. (2018). Economic valuation of the tourist spots in Bangladesh. International Journal. of Tourism Policy, 8(1), 42–64.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. (5 ed.). Prentice Hall.

Hasan, K., Abdullah, S. K., Islam, F., & Neela, N. M. (2020). An integrated model for examining tourists’ revisit intention to beach tourism destinations. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 21(6), 716–737.

Hasan, M. K., Abdullah, S. K., Lew, T. Y., & Islam, M. F. (2019). The antecedents of tourist attitudes to revisit and revisit intentions for coastal tourism. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(2), 218–234.

Hasan, M. K., Ismail, A. R., & Islam, M. F. (2017). Tourist risk perceptions and revisit intention: A critical review of literature. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1412874.

Hasan, S. (2014). Tourism in Bangladesh: Problems and prospects.

Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.

Hosany, S., & Prayag, G. (2013). Patterns of tourists’ emotional responses, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 730–737.

Hossain, M. S., Mostafa, M. G., & Hossain, M. A. (2021). Modeling tourists’ satisfaction in the nature-based tourist destination using structural equation modeling technique. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 37(3), 814–822.

Hsu, S. Y., Dehuang, N., & Woodside, A. G. (2009). Storytelling research of consumers’ self-reports of urban tourism experiences in China. Journal of Business Research, 62(12), 1223–1254.

Hudson, S., & Ritchie, J. B. (2009). Branding a memorable destination experience. The case of ‘Brand Canada’. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11(2), 217–228.

Hung, W. L., Lee, Y. J., & Huang, P. H. (2016). Creative experiences, memorability and revisit intention in creative tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(8), 763–770.

Hunt, J. D. (1975). Image as a factor in tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 13(3), 1–7.

Hussein, A. S. (2016). How event awareness, event quality and event image creates visitor revisit intention?: A lesson from car free day event. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 396–400.

Ifie, K., Simintiras, A. C., Dwivedi, Y., & Mavridou, V. (2018). How service quality and outcome confidence drive pre-outcome word-of-mouth. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 44, 214–221.

Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., Dini, B., & Manzari, P. Y. (2012). Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1–2), 134–143.

Jarvis, D., Stoeckl, N., & Liu, H. B. (2016). The impact of economic, social and environmental factors on trip satisfaction and the likelihood of visitors returning. Tourism Management, 52, 1–18.

Jenkins, O. H. (1999). Understanding and measuring tourist destination images. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(1), 1–15.<1::AID-

Jumanazarov, S., Kamilov, A., & Kiatkawsin, K. (2020). Impact of Samarkand’s destination attributes on international tourists’ revisit and word-of-mouth intention. Sustainability, 12(12), 5154.

Kanwel, S., Lingqiang, Z., Asif, M., Hwang, J., Hussain, A., & Jameel, A. (2019). The influence of destination image on tourist loyalty and intention to visit: Testing a multiple mediation approach. Sustainability, 11(22), 6401.

Karim, K., Setarnawat, S., & Viriyasuebphong, P. (2018). A Study on motivational factors of travellers to revisit Kuakata Sea Beach, Patuakhali, Bangladesh. Burapha Journal of Business Management, 8(1), 117–133.

Khasawneh, M. S., & Alfandi, A. M. (2019). Determining behaviour intentions from the overall destination image and risk perception. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 25(2), 355–375.

Khoo, K. L. (2022). A study of service quality, corporate image, customer satisfaction, revisit intention and word-of-mouth: Evidence from the KTV industry. PSU Research Review, 6(2), 105–119.

Khuong, M. N., & Duyen, H. T. M. (2017). The effects of destination image, perceived value and service quality on tourist return intention through destination satisfaction – A study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 8(5), 401–408.

Kim, J. H. (2018). The impact of memorable tourism experiences on loyalty behaviors: The mediating effects of destination image and satisfaction. Journal of Travel Research, 57(7), 856–870.

Kim, J. H., Ritchie, J. B., & McCormick, B. (2012a). Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1), 12–25.

Kim, K., Hallab, Z., & Kim, J. N. (2012b). The moderating effect of travel experience in a destination on the relationship between the destination image and the intention to revisit. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21(5), 486–505.

Költringer, C., & Dickinger, A. (2015). Analyzing destination branding and image from online sources: A web content mining approach. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1836–1843.

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2009). Manajemen Pemasaran, edisiketigabelas. Erlangga.

Kozak, M. (2001). Repeaters’ behavior at two distinct destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3), 784–807.

Kozak, M., Crotts, J. C., & Law, R. (2007). The impact of the perception of risk on international travellers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 233–242.

Kumar, D. (2020). Tourism in Bangladesh: Problems and prospects and its economic impact. In UGC Sponsored International Conference on Changing Scenario of Tourism in the Era of Globalisation: Issues and Concerns. Department of Commerce and Business Administration, L. N. Mithila University, Dardhanga, Bihar, India.

Kumar, V., & Kaushik, A. K. (2020). Does experience affect engagement? Role of destination brand engagement in developing brand advocacy and revisit intentions. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 37(3), 332–346.

Kusumawati, A., Utomo, H. S., Suharyono, S., & Sunarti, S. (2020). Effects of sustainability on WoM intention and revisit intention, with environmental awareness as a moderator. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 31(1), 273–288.

Lai, K., & Li, X. (2016). Tourism destination image: Conceptual problems and definitional solutions. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1065–1080.

Laksana, I. P. G. J., & Ekawati, N. W (2020). Word of mouth and customer satisfaction in mediating the relationship between service quality and revisit intention. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Research (AJHSSR), 4(9), 19–28.

Lee, C. H., Hung, C. C., Chien, C. S., Zhuang, W. L., & Hsu, C. Y. Y. (2017). Regulatory foci and expatriate adjustment. Personnel Review, 46(3), 512–525.

Lee, S. W., & Xue, K. (2020). A model of destination loyalty: Integrating destination image and sustainable tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(4), 393–408.

Li, T. T., Liu, F., & Soutar, G. N. (2021). Experiences, post-trip destination image, satisfaction and loyalty: A study in an ecotourism context. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100547.

Li, Y. (2000). Geographical consciousness and tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(4), 863–883.

Liu, C. H. S., & Lee, T. (2016). Service quality and price perception of service: Influence on word-of-mouth and revisit intention. Journal of Air Transport Management, 52, 42–54.

Loi, L. T. I., So, A. S. I., Lo, I. S., & Fong, L. H. N. (2017). Does the quality of tourist shuttles influence revisit intention through destination image and satisfaction? The case of Macao. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 115–123.

Lv, X., & McCabe, S. (2020). Expanding theory of tourists’ destination loyalty: The role of sensory impressions. Tourism Management, 77, 104026.

Marine-Roig, E. (2015). Identity and authenticity in destination image construction. Anatolia, 26(4), 574–587.

Marine-Roig, E., & Ferrer-Rosell, B. (2018). Measuring the gap between projected and perceived destination images of Catalonia using compositional analysis. Tourism Management, 68, 236–249.

Martín-Santana, J. D., Beerli-Palacio, A., & Nazzareno, P. A. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of destination image gap. Annals of Tourism Research, 62, 13–25.

Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N. T., Moraes, C., & Micevski, M. (2013). Do marketers use visual representations of destinations that tourists value? Comparing visitors’ image of a destination with marketer-controlled images online. Journal of Travel Research, 52(6), 789–804.

Mcintosh, A. J., & Siggs, A. (2005). An exploration of the experiential nature of boutique accommodation. Journal of Travel Research, 44(1), 74–81.

Meng, B., & Cui, M. (2020). The role of co-creation experience in forming tourists’ revisit intention to home-based accommodation: Extending the theory of planned behavior. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 100581.

Min, K. S., Martin, D., & Jung, J. M. (2013). Designing advertising campaigns for destinations with mixed images: Using visitor campaign goal messages to motivate visitors. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 759–764.

Mittal, V., Kumar, P., & Tsiros, M. (1999). Attribute-level performance, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions over time: a consumption-system approach. Journal of Marketing, 63(2), 88–101.

Moon, K.-S., Ko, Y. J., Connaughton, D. P., & Lee, J.-H. (2013). A mediating role of destination image in the relationship between event quality, perceived value, and behavioral intention. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 18(1), 49–66.

Mujihestia, T. I. (2018). The role of city branding on visitors’revisit intention: A study in Malang, Indonesia. Kinerja, 22(1), 79–94.

Nazir, M. U., Yasin, I., & Tat, H. H. (2021). Destination image’s mediating role between perceived risks, perceived constraints, and behavioral intention. Heliyon, 7(7), e07613.

Nguyen Viet, B., Dang, H. P., & Nguyen, H. H. (2020). Revisit intention and satisfaction: The role of destination image, perceived risk, and cultural contact. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1).

Nikolova, M. S., & Hassan, S. S. (2013). Nation branding effects on retrospective global evaluation of past travel experiences. Journal of Business Research, 66(6), 752–758.

Nomm, A. H. L., Albrecht, J. N., & Lovelock, B. (2020). Advocacy and community leadership as functions in national and regional level destination management. Tourism Management Perspectives, 35, 100682.

Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460–469.

Oxenfeldt, A. R. (1974). Developing a favorable price-quality image. Journal of Retailing, 50(4), 8–14.

Perdue, R. R. (2002). Perishability, yield management, and cross-product elasticity: A case study of deep discount season passes in the Colorado ski industry. Journal of Travel Research, 41(1), 15–22.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 539–569.

Polas, M. R. H., Raju, V., Hossen, S. M., Karim, A. M., & Tabash, M. I. (2020). Customer’s revisit intention: Empirical evidence on Gen‐Z from Bangladesh towards halal restaurants. Journal of Public Affairs, 22(3), e2572.

Prayogo, R. R., Ketaren, F. L. S., & Hati, R. M. (2017). Electronic word of mouth, destination image, and satisfaction toward visit intention: an empirical study in Malioboro Street, Yogyakarta. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2016).

Prebensen, N. K., Woo, E., Chen, J. S., & Uysal, M. (2013). Motivation and involvement as antecedents of the perceived value of the destination experience. Journal of Travel Research, 52(2), 253–264.

Prentice, C., Wang, X., & Manhas, P. S. (2021). The spillover effect of airport service experience on destination revisit intention. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 48, 119–127.

Quintal, V. A., & Polczynski, A. (2010). Factors influencing tourists’ revisit intentions. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(4), 554–578.

Rahman, M. S., Bag, S., Hassan, H., Hossain, M. A., & Singh, R. K. (2021). Destination brand equity and tourist’s revisit intention towards health tourism: An empirical study. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 29(4), 1306–1331.

Reisinger, Y., & Mavondo, F. (2005). Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 212–225.

Rosid, M., Pratikto, H. H., & Syihabudhin, S. E. (2020). Word of mouth (WOM), visitor experience, and destination attributes on revisit intention through perceived value a case of Penangguaganmountain, East Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 21(5), 90–101.

Sangpikul, A. (2018). The effects of travel experience dimensions on tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: The case of an island destination. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(1), 106–123.

Schänzel, H. A., & McIntosh, A. J. (2000). An insight into the personal and emotive context of wildlife viewing at the Penguin Place, Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 8(1), 36–52.

Seetanah, B., Teeroovengadum, V., & Nunkoo, R. (2020). Destination satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists: does the quality of airport services matter?. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 44(1), 134–148.

Severt, D., Wang, Y., Chen, P. J., & Breiter, D. (2007). Examining the motivation, perceived performance, and behavioral intentions of convention attendees: Evidence from a regional conference. Tourism Management, 28(2), 399–408.

Shankar, V., Smith, A. K., & Rangaswamy, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20(2), 153–175.

Sharma, P., & Nayak, J. K. (2019). Understanding memorable tourism experiences as the determinants of tourists’ behaviour. International Journal of Tourism Research, 21(4), 504–518.

Shavanddasht, M., & Schänzel, H. (2019). Measuring adolescents’ tourism satisfaction: The role of mood and perceived parental style. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19(3), 308–320.

Siang, J. H., Yang, W. G., & Liu, L. W. (2020). Impact of WOM and online WOM on tourist destinations in Indonesia. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 25(Esp. 10), 297–304.

Simpson, P. M., &Siguaw, J. A. (2008). Destination word of mouth: The role of traveler type, residents, and identity salience. Journal of Travel Research, 47(2), 167–182.

Sirakaya-Turk, E., Ekinci, Y., & Martin, D. (2015). The efficacy of shopping value in predicting destination loyalty. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1878–1885.

Smith, T. A. (2020). The role of customer personality in satisfaction, attitude-to-brand and loyalty in mobile services. Spanish Journal of Marketing-ESIC, 24(2), 155–175.

Song, H., Chen, J. M., & Chen, Y. (2021). Mediating and moderating effects in golf tourism: Evidence from Hainan Island. Tourism Economics, 27(3), 510–526.

Stavrianea, A., & Kamenidou, I. (Eirini). (2021). Memorable tourism experiences, destination image, satisfaction, and loyalty: an empirical study of Santorini Island. EuroMed Journal of Business, (ahead-of-print).

Stylos, N., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A., & Vassiliadis, C. A. (2017). Linking the dots among destination images, place attachment, and revisit intentions: A study among British and Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 60, 15–29.

Summers, J. O. (2001). Guidelines for conducting research and publishing in marketing: From conceptualization through the review process. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 29(4), 405–415.

Tanford, S., & Jung, S. (2017). Festival attributes and perceptions: A meta-analysis of relationships with satisfaction and loyalty. Tourism Management, 61, 209–220.

Tasci, A. D., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425.

Trung, N. V. H., & Khalifa, G. S. (2019). Impact of destination image factors on revisit intentions of hotel’s international tourists in Ba Ria-Vung Tau (Br-Vt) the mediating role of positive word of mouth. International Journal on Recent Trends in Business and Tourism (IJRTBT), 3(2), 106–115.

Um, S., Chon, K., & Ro, Y. (2006). Antecedents of revisit intention. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1141–1158.

Wu, C. W. (2016). Destination loyalty modeling of the global tourism. Journal of Business Research, 69(6), 2213–2219.

Xu, F., Niu, W., Li, S., & Bai, Y. (2020). The mechanism of word-of-mouth for tourist destinations in crisis. SAGE Open, 10(2).

Yang, Y., Ruan, Q., Huang, S. (Sam), Lan, T., & Wang, Y. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on tourists’ real-time on-site emotional experience in reopened tourism destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 48, 390–394.

Yoo, C. W., Kim, Y. J., & Sanders, G. L. (2015). The impact of interactivity of electronic word of mouth systems and E-Quality on decision support in the context of the e-marketplace. Information & Management, 52(4), 496–505.

Yoon, Y., & Uysal, M. (2005). An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: A structural model. Tourism Management, 26(1), 45–56.

Zeugner-Roth, K. P., & Žabkar, V. (2015). Bridging the gap between country and destination image: Assessing common facets and their predictive validity. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1844–1853.

Zhang, H., Wu, Y., & Buhalis, D. (2018). A model of perceived image, memorable tourism experiences and revisit intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 326–336.

Zhang, T., Wei, W., Fu, X., Hua, N., & Wang, Y. (2019). Exploring the roles of technology, people, and organization in building a tourism destination experience: Insights from the 2nd USA-China tourism research summit and Industry Dialogue. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 130–135.