Demographic differences matter on job outcomes: psychological contract’s mediating role

    Ali Ender Altunoğlu   Affiliation
    ; Özge Kocakula   Affiliation
    ; Ayşe Özer   Affiliation


Purpose – Drawing upon prior researches on the social exchange theory, we examine the effect of employee demographic variables on psychological contract fulfillment, which eventually influences employee’s job satisfaction, intention to leave, organizational citizenship behavior, cynicism, and task performance.

Research methodology – Data from 274 employees of different manufacturing enterprises has been collected through the survey. Description and interpretation statistics are used through SPSS and also AMOS. Structural equality modeling is used to assess the psychological contract’s mediating function.

Findings – Data analysis shows that psychological contract fulfillment mediated positive relationships between demographic variables and constructive job outcomes; in contrast, mediated negative relationships between demographic variables and destructive job outcomes.

Research limitations – This paper applies data from the manufacturing industry operating in Turkey, which may prevent the generalizability of the paper. More study is needed to confirm these results on different samples in order to generalize findings. In addition, the data comes from a single source, raising the risk of common technique bias, and is focused solely on self-reports.

Practical implications – The study suggests that organizations review and revise their ideas on the exchange connection with their workforce as job outcomes of employees are connected to PC fulfillment. In practice, managers and leaders may highlight that such fulfillment constitutes an investment of resources into and a long-term commitment to the employee in addition to satisfying relational responsibilities. Leaders should place a strong emphasis on increasing employee commitment levels. Creating a culture of trust and loyalty fosters beneficial behavioral and attitudinal results among employees.

Originality/Value – This study investigated psychological contract fulfilment’s mediator effect on the relationship between demographic differences and job outcomes.

Keyword : demographic variables, job outcomes, psychological contract fulfillment

How to Cite
Altunoğlu, A. E., Kocakula, Özge, & Özer, A. (2022). Demographic differences matter on job outcomes: psychological contract’s mediating role. Business, Management and Economics Engineering, 20(1), 1–22.
Published in Issue
Mar 7, 2022
Abstract Views
PDF Downloads
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Abela, F., & Debono, M. (2019). The relationship between PC breach and job-related attitudes within a manufacturing plant. SAGE Open.

Acker, G. M. (2004). The effect of organizational conditions (role conflict, role ambiguity, opportunities for professional development, and social support) on job satisfaction and intention to leave among social workers in mental health care. Community Mental Health Journal, 40(1), 65– 74.

Agarwal, U. A., Dixit, V., Nikolova, N., Jain, K., & Sankaran, S. (2021). A PC perspective of vertical and distributed leadership in project-based organizations. International Journal of Project Management, 39, 249–258.

Al Zamel, L. G., Lim Abdullah, K., Chan, C. M., & Piaw, C. Y. (2020) Factors influencing nurses’ intention to leave and intention to stay: An integrative review. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 32(4), 218–228.

Andersson, L. M. (1996). Employee cynicism: An examination using a contract violation framework. Human Relations, 49, 1395–1418.

Anseel, F., Lievens, F., & Schollaert, E. (2009). Reflection as a strategy to enhance task performance after feedback. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(1), 23–35.

Arabacı, I. B. (2010). The effects of depersonalization and organizational cynicism levels on the job satisfaction of educational inspectors. African Journal of Business Management, 4(13), 2802–2811.

Bal, P. M., De Lange, A. M., Jansen, P. G. W., & Van Der Velde, M. (2008). PC breach and job attitudes: a meta-analysis of age as a moderator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(1), 143–158.

Baruch, Y., Wordsworth, R., Mills, C., & Wright, S. (2016). Career and work attitudes of blue-collar workers, and the impact of a natural disaster chance event on the relationships between intention to quit and actual quit behavior. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(3), 459–473.

Basım, H. N., & Şeşen, H. (2006). Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı Ölçeği Uyarlarma ve Karşılaştırma Çalışması. Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi, 61(4), 83–101.

Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex-typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354–364.

Bentler, P. M. (1980). Multivariate analysis with latent variables: Causal modeling. Annual Review of Psychology, 31, 419–456.

Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238–246.

Blau, P. M. (1986). Exchange and power in social life. Transaction Publishers.

Blomme, R. J., van Rheede, A., & Tromp, D. M. (2010). The use of the PC to explain turnover intentions in the hospitality industry: a research study on the impact of gender on the turnover intentions of highly educated employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(1), 144–162.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 17, 303–316.

Brandes, P., Dharwadkar, R., & Dean, J. W. (1999). Does organizational cynicism matter? Employee and supervisor perspectives on work outcomes. In Eastern Academy of Management Proceedings (pp. 150–153).

Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL, PRELIMS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Callister, R. R. (2006). The impact of gender and department climate on job satisfaction and intentions to quit for faculty in science and engineering fields. Journal of Technology Transfer, 31, 367–375.

Castellacci, F., & Viñas-Bardolet, C. (2020). Permanent contracts and job satisfaction in academia: Evidence from European countries. Studies in Higher Education, 46(9), 1866–1880.

Chi, S.-C. S., & Chen, S. C. (2007). Perceived PC fulfillment and job attitudes among repatriates: An empirical study in Taiwan. International Journal of Manpower, 28(6), 474–488.

Chiaburu, D. S., Peng, A. C., Oh, I. S., Banks, G. C., & Lomeli, L. C. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of employee organizational cynicism: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 181–197.

Chiang, J. C., Jiang, J. J.-Y., Liao, C., & Klein, G. (2012). Consequences of PC violations for is personnel. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(4), 78–87.

Conway, N., & Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M. (2012). The reciprocal relationship between PC fulfilment and employee performance and the moderating role of perceived organizational support and tenure. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85, 277–299.

Conway, N., & Briner, R. B. (2005). Understanding PCs at work. A critical evaluation of theory and research. Oxford University Press.

Cotton, J. L., & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A Meta-Analysis and review with implications for research. The Academy of Management Review, 11(1), 55–70.

Coyle-Shapiro, J. A.-M., & Kessler, I. (2002). Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the PC: Employee and employer perspectives. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11(1), 69–86.

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. Sage Publications.

Du Plooy, J., & Roodt, G. (2013). Biographical and demographical variables as moderators in the prediction of turnover intentions. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(1), 12–24.

Ersoy, N. C., Born, M. Ph., Derosa, E., & van der Molen, H. T. (2011). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior among blue- and white-collar workers in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 356–367.

Euwema, M. C., Wendt, H., & van Emmerik, H. (2007). Leadership styles and group organizational citizenship behavior across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 28, 1035–1057.

Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 56–83.

Ferris, G., Liden, R., Munyon, T., Summers, J., Basik, K., & Buckley, M. (2009). Relationships at work: Toward a multidimensional conceptualization of dyadic work relationships. Journal of Management, 35(6), 1379–1403.

Gajewski, P. D., Falkenstein, M., Thönes, S., & Wascher, E. (2020). Stroop task performance across the lifespan: High cognitive reserve in older age is associated with enhanced proactive and reactive interference control. NeuroImage, 207, 116430.

Golob, T. F. (2003). Structural equation modeling for travel behavior research. Transportation Research Part B, 37(1), 1–25.

Goodman, S. A., & Svyantek, D. J. (1999). Person–organization fit and contextual performance: Do shared values matter? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55(2), 254–275.

Guest, D. (1998). Is the PC worth taking seriously? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 649–664. 3.0.CO;2-T><649::AID-JOB970>3.0.CO;2-T

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159–170.

Hammer, L. B., Allen, E., & Grigsby, T. D. (1997). Work-family conflict in dual-earner couples: Within individual and crossover effects of work and family. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 185–203.

Hess, N., & Jepsen, D. M. (2009). Career stage and generational differences in PCs. Career Development International, 14(3), 261–283.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53–60.

Hoque, K. (1999). Human resource management and performance in UK hotel industry. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 37(3), 419–443.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Hu, X., Kaplan, S., & Dalal, R. S. (2010). An examination of blue- versus white-collar workers’ conceptualizations of job satisfaction facets. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 317–325.

James, M. S. L. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of cynicism in organizations: An examination of the potential positive and negative effects on school systems [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation]. The Florida State University, USA.

Janssens, M., Sels, L., & Brande, I. V. (2003). Multiple types of PCs: A six-cluster solution. Human Relations, 56(11), 1349–1378.

Jawahar, I. M., & Carr, D. (2007). Conscientiousness and contextual performance the compensatory effects of perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(4), 330–349.

Johnson, J. L., & O’leary-Kelly, A. M. (2003). The effects of PC breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 627–647.

Kidder, D. L. (2002). The influence of gender on the performance of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 28(5), 629–648.

Khan, M. A., Ismail, F. B., Hussain, A., & Alghazali, B. (2020). The interplay of leadership styles, innovative work behavior, organizational culture, and organizational citizenship behavior. SAGE Open.

Knights, J. A., & Kennedy, B. J. (2005). PC violation: Impacts on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among Australian senior public servants. Applied H.R.M. Research, 10(2), 57–72.

Kollmann, T., Stöckmann, C., Kensbock, J. M., & Peschl, A. (2020). What satisfies younger versus older employees, and why? An aging perspective on equity theory to explain interactive effects of employee age, monetary rewards, and task contributions on job satisfaction. Human Resource Management, 59, 101–115.

Koopmans, L. (2014). Measuring individual work performance. CPI Koninklijke Wöhrmann, Zutphen.

Lall, M. D., Perman, S. M., Garg, N., Kohn, N., Whyte, K., Gips, A., Madsen, T., Baren, J. M., & Linden, J. (2020). Intention to leave emergency medicine: Mid-career women are at increased risk. The Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 21(5), 1131–1139.

Lambert, L. S., Edwards, J. R., & Cable, D. M. (2003). Breach and fulfillment of the PC: A comparison of traditional and expanded views. Personnel Psychology, 56(4), 895–934.

Larwood, L., Wright, T., Desrochers, S., & Dahir, V. (1998). Extending latent role of PC theories to predict intent to turnover and politics in business organisations. Group & Organization Management, 23, 100–123.

Laulie, L., & Tekleab, A. G. (2016). A multi-level theory of PC fulfillment in teams. Group and Organization Management, 41(5), 658–698.

Lee, C. H., Hsu, M. L., & Lien, N. H. (2006). The impacts of benefit plans on employee turnover: A firm-level analysis approach on Taiwanese manufacturing industry. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(11), 1951–1975.

Lu, K. Y., Lin, P. L., Wu, C. M., Hsieh, Y. L., & Chang, Y. Y. (2002). The relationships among turnover intentions, professional commitment and job satisfaction of hospital nurses. Journal of Professional Nursing, 18(4), 214–219.

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130–149.

Mackey, J. D., Roth, P. L., Van Iddekinge, C. H., & McFarland, L. A. (2019). A meta-analysis of gender proportionality effects on job performance. Group & Organization Management, 44(3), 578–610.

Marsh, H. W., Hau, K.-T., Artelt, C., Baumert, J., & Peschar, J. L. (2006). OECD’s brief self-report measure of educational psychology’s most useful affective constructs: Cross-cultural, psychometric comparisons across 25 countries. International Journal of Testing, 6(4), 311–360.

McDonald, D., & Makin, P. (2000). The PC, organisational commitment and job satisfaction of temporary staff. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(2), 84–91.

Michael, J. H., Evans, D. D., Jansen, K. J., & Haigth, J. M. (2005). Management commitment to safety as organizational support: Relationships with non-safety outcomes in wood manufacturing employees. Journal of Safety Research, 36(2), 171–179.

Mobley, W. H., Horner, S. O., & Hollingsworth, A. T. (1978). An evaluation of precursors of hospital employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 408–414.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work-family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 400–410.

Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2011). Affective organizational commitment and citizenship behavior: Linear and non-linear moderating effects of organizational tenure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79, 528–537.

Ng, T. W., Lam, S. S. K., & Feldman, D. C. (2016). Organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behaviors: Do males and females differ? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 93, 11–32.

Njite, D., & Parsa, H. G. (2005). Structural equation modeling of factors that influence consumer internet purchase intentions of services. Journal of Services Research, 5(1), 43–58.

Oorschot, J., Moscardo, G., & Blackman, A. (2021). Leadership style and PC. Australian Council for Educational Research, 30(1), 43–54.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior. Lexington Books.

Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (1995). PCs and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(3), 289–298.

Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the PC. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 574–599.

Robinson, S. L., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Violation the PC: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(3), 245–259.

Robinson, S. L., Kratz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing obligations and the PC: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 137–152.

Rosen, C., Chang, C., Johnson, R., & Levy, P. (2009). Perceptions of the organizational context and PC breach: Assessing competing perspectives. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 108(2), 202–217.

Rousseau, D. M. (1995). PCs in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Sage Publications.

Sak, R. (2018). Gender differences in Turkish early childhood teachers’ job satisfaction, job burnout and organizational cynicism. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46, 643–653.

Shim, D. C., & Faerman, S. (2017). Government employees’ organizational citizenship behavior: The impacts of public service motivation, organizational identification, and subjective OCB norms. International Public Management Journal, 20(4), 531–559.

Sousa-Poza, A., & Sousa-Poza, A. A. (2003). Gender differences in job satisfaction in Great Britain, 1991–2000: Permanent or transitory? Applied Economics Letters, 10(11), 691–694.

Sturman, M. C. (2003). Searching for the inverted u-shaped relationship between time and performance: Meta-Analyses of the experience/performance, tenure/performance, and age/performance relationships. Journal of Management, 29(5), 609–640.

Turnley, W. H., Bolino, M. C., Lester, S. W., & Bloodgood, J. M. (2003). The impact of PC fulfillment on the performance of in-role and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 29(2), 187–206.

Van Hootegem, A., Van Hootegem, A., Selenko, E., & De Witte, H. (2021). Work is political: Distributive injustice as a mediating mechanism in the relationship between job insecurity and political cynicism. Political Psychology.

Vatankhah, S. (2021). Dose safety motivation mediate the effect of PC of safety on flight attendants’ safety performance outcomes?: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Air Transport Management, 90, 1–9.

Vos, A., Buyens, D., & Schalk, R. (2005). Making sense of a new employment relationship: PC-related information seeking and the role of work values and locus of control. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 13(1), 41–52.

Wang, X., Sun, J., Liu, X., Zheng, M., & Fu, J. (2019). PC’s effect on job mobility: Evidence from Chinese construction worker. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 32(1), 1476–1497.

Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Perceived organizational support and leader-member exchange: A social exchange perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 82–111.

Williams, S., & Shiaw, W. T. (1999). Mood and organizational citizenship behavior: The effects of positive affect on employee organizational citizenship behavior intentions. The Journal of Psychology, 133(6), 656–668.

Zhao, H., Wayne, S., Glibkowksi, B., & Bravo, J. (2007). The impact of PC breach on related work-outcomes: Meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 60, 647–680.